عنوان مقاله [English]
Effect of Organic Manure on Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Population Densities of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt 1871
Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN), Hederodera schachtii Schmidt. 1871, marked as one of the most damaging disease of sugar beet worldwide. It's also an important disease of sugar beet in Isfahan Province, and causing plenty of an irreversible damage. Thus, the nematode infested fields for cultivation in the province and the country is to be threatened. This nematode has a wide host range, over 218 plant species from 95 genera, belonging to 23 families, including field crops, ornamentals and weeds as hosts, which have been identified and introduced so far. The SBCN management's strategies are a long term crop rotation, use of catch crops, early planting and the use of nematicides. In general, the best method reported to control SBCN is a 3 to 7-year rotation with non-host plants. In addition, incorporation of farm manure into the soil had a positive effect in controlling potato golden cyst nematode. Testing on vermicomposting and non-organic fertilizers revealed that, free-living nematodes in the population index were highest in the vermicompost treatments than non-organic fertilizers.
Materials and methods. The initial population of SBCN in the infested soil was determined, before the treatment of the selected field. Then, 200 g. of soil were selected, out of several samples collected from every plots, which was air dried and in the file system using Fenwick, the cysts were extracted. Eggs and the second larvae in the soil and end up in a 200 g. of soil were calculated accordingly. All the organic matters, including, poultry manure at 10, 20 and 40 t/ha compost fertilizer by municipality of Isfahan wastes, vermicompost, waste cabbage leaves and farm manure (cow manure) were employed. Reproductive factors and the percent decrease and or increase in SBCN populations in each treatment were calculated relative to the initial population of the same treatment. And, comparison of means was done by Duncan tests. For the Greenhouse experiments, the same treated soils from each and every treatment in field were poured into the clay pots with a capacity of 5 kg of soil. At the time of harvest, the produced beets in each and every plot were weighted, and the beet samples for determining of sugar percentage and the important elements were sent to sugar factory for analyzes. The analysis of variance was performed, using SAS software and comparison method.
Results and ddiscussions. The initial population of SBCN was 4.85 eggs and larvae per gram of soil, before the implication of the treatments in the field. There were 92.40 and 88.44 percent reduction in SBCN final population for the poultry manure at the rate of 40 and 20 tons per hectare, with the high significant effect, in comparison to other ones respectively. Variance analysis of Reproduction factor showed that there is a significant difference between the treatments. Poultry manure 40 t/h with 0.14 eggs and larvae per gram of soil was the lowest one in reproduction factor, with a high significant effect to other treatments and control groups. Followed by poultry manure 20 t/h, compost 015, 60 ha, poultry manure 10 t/h and compost 08, 60 t/h, in the next category with a significant effect. The results on the yield, sugar content and other indices showed significant differences between the various treatments. Poultry manure 20 and 40 t/h, with the yield of 27.55 and 26.93 t/h, in a statistical group had the maximum amount of product with a very minor difference, were the most effective treatments on the assessed factors, including final population, reproduction, multiplication rat and reduction percentage in SBCN, H. schachtii compared to other treatments and the checks. In this regard, it has been shown on other nematodes that, chicken manure has reduced the population of M. incognita, Hoplolaimus columbus and Pratylenchus penetrans in brinjal. And also the use of chicken manure on control of root-knot nematodes was very effective and even caused IGR in tomato production.
1- It was found that, the use of organic matters, chicken manure, municipal compost, vermicompost; waste cabbage leaves and farm manure in different amounts control the SBCN population accordingly.
2- Therefore, it is suggested here, that chicken manure at 20t/ha, is for an optimum use and economically reasonable and significant amount for the SBCN control.
3- Also composts 015 and 08, vermicompost, farm manure and waste cabbage leaf at 40 to 60t/h, in terms of economic value appears to be applicable.
4- Always a method or a substance, in terms of its own hazards is not recommended. Therefore, any of the said material can be used in intervals for SBCN control and or in integration with other methods such as crop rotation, disease scape,