نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی
دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Gossypium species are distributed in the arid to semiarid regions of the tropical and subtropical, generally shrubs or shrub-like plants. The leaves are broad and lobed with three to five lobes. The seeds are contained in a capsule called a "boll", each seed surrounded by fibers. Commercial species of cotton plant are Gossypium hirsutum (>90% of world production), G. barbadense (3-4%), G. arboreum and G. herbaceum (together, 2%). Cotton is grown as a cash crop; it is often grown in a monoculture system that favors the development of a nematode community dominated by one or a few parasitic species. The different genera of plant parasitic nematodes such as Haplolaimus, Helicotylenchus, Blanolaimus, Pratylenchus, Paratrichodorus, Meloidogyne, Merlinius, Xiphinema, Tylenchorynchus, Rotylenchulus, Scutellonema, Heterodera, Ditylenchus, Longidorus, Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus were recorded from cotton fields in the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cotton fields in Southern Khorasan province of Iran.
Materials and Methods: In order to identify the plant parasitic nematodes in cotton fields in Southern Khorasan province, 56 soil samples were collected from different areas during 2013 and 2014. Soil samples were washed and nematodes were extracted by combined sieving and centrifugal-flotation method of Jenkins (1964) and Whitehead tray method (1965). Nematodes were fixed and transferred to glycerin by using the method of De Grisse (1969). The permanent slides were prepared and the nematodes were studied by light microscope.
Results and Discussion: In this study, 15 species from 10 genera related to order Tylenchomorpha, were identified as follows: Aphelenchus avenae, Basiria graminophila, Boleodorus clavicaudatus, B. pakistanensis, B. thylactus, Ditylenchus hexaglyphus, D. tenuidens, D. valveus, Geocenamus rugosus, Filenchus vulgaris, Pratylenchus neglectus, P. thornei, Scutylenchus quadrifer, Merlinius brevidens, Zygotylenchus guevarai. One genus of cotton-parasitic nematodes known to cause yield loss were found in this survey (Pratylenchus spp). Other parasitic nematodes not known to cause yield loss also were found. Three species, including Boleodorus pakistanensis, Ditylenchus hexaglyphus, D. valveus are reported as new records for Iran. Boleodorus pakistanensis is characterized by four incisures, head low, unstriated and conoid shape, stylet 8.5-10µm with cone short and slender knobs, non-muscular median bulb, Basal bulb pyriform, posterior vulva (v=68.1-72.4 ; v/=77.5-88.4). Tail elongate-conoid, central arcuate, ending in a finely rounded terminus. B. pakistanensis resembles, B. flexuosus B. teres, B. thylactus and B. cylindricus. B. thylactus but can be differentiated by the more posterior position of the opening of the dorsal gland (2 vs 3-5); B. flexuosus has a more anterior vulva (V=54-63 vs 68.1-72.4); B. teres has a more anterior vulva (V=54-63 vs 68.1-72.4), tail shape and stylet length (10-12 vs 8.5-10); B. cylindricus has a more anterior position of the opening of the dorsal gland (7 vs 3-5) and more tail (88-101 vs 72-88.5). Ditylenchus hexaglyphus is characterized by six lines in lateral fields, low head, stylet 8-9µm with cone shorter than the shaft and small elongated knobs, non-muscular median bulb, Posterior bulb offset, posterior vulva (v=82.3 -83.5; v/=87.8-89.6). Tail ventrally curved, terminus rounded. Having non-muscular median bulb, six incisures, short stylet and posterior vulva. D. hexaglyphus resembles D .medians, D. taylori, D. affinis, and D. tuberosus. However, none of these species have such small stylet knobs, and all but D. affinis have longer PUS than that observed in D. hexaglyphus. D. taylori more anterior vulva (V=75-77 vs 82.3-83.5) and tail appears to be thinner (c/=6-7 vs 2.9-3.8); D. affinis has a more anterior vulva (V=76-80 vs 82.3-83.5). Ditylenchus valveus is characterized by six incisures, annulated head, stylet 8-9µm with short cone and small rounded knobs, muscular median bulb with small. Posterior bulb offset, posterior vulva (v=74.3 -81.5; v/=84.9-89.2). Tail terminus rounded. Because of six incisures, short stylet, vulva position, oesophagus structure and tail shape, D. valveus resembles D. acutatus D. myceliophagus and D. medicaginis. D. myceliophagus differs from D.valveus by tail shape and generally overlapping oesophagus; D. medicaginis differs from D. valveus mainly by tail shape and also slightly more posterior vulva position (78-83 vs 74.3-81.5); D. acutatus differs from D. valveus mainly by tail shape.
Conclusion: In this study, 15 species from 10 genera of plant parasitic nematodes were identified. Among these genera and species, three species including Boleodorus pakistanensis, Ditylenchus hexaglyphus, D. valveus are reported as new records for Iran.
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