بررسی تأثیرکاربرد همزمان Trichoderma harzianum و مالچ گیاهی بر عملکرد و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی گندم رقم نارین

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه پزشکی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استادیار گروه زراعت دانشگاه بیرجند

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد همزمان Trichoderma harzianum و مالچ گیاهی بر عملکرد و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی گندم رقم نارین و تآثیر آن بر روی برهم­کنش این رقم با قارچ Alternaria alternata، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل شاهد (بدون کاربرد تریکودرما هارزیانوم)،  تریکودرما خاک کاربرد، تریکودرما برگ­کاربرد در مرحله دانه­بندی، تریکودرما خاک کاربرد توأم با برگ‌کاربرد در مرحله دانه­بندی بودند. در مرحله دانه بندی هر واحد آزمایشی به دو بخش تقسیم شد و تیمار بیمارگر عامل لکه برگی در دو سطح (تلقیح اندام هوایی در مرحله دانه­بندی و بدون تلقیح) بعنوان فاکتور فرعی در آزمایش در نظر گرفته شد. هدف از کاربرد تیمار بیمارگر بررسی تآثیر قارچ تریکودرما در حضور بیمارگر بود و تأثیر آن بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی (شامل فنل کل، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کاروتنوئید، کلروفیل کل) بود جهت بررسی اثر کاربردهای مختلف تریکودرما بر رقم نارین نیز در بخش دیگر کرت که بدون تیمار بیمارگر بود تجزیه و تحلیل صفات رشدی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد اندازه­گیری شد. پس از تلقیح بیمارگر هیچ گونه علائم بیماری اعم از نکروز یا کلروز برگی مشاهده نشد. تجزیه صفات فیزیولوژیکی نشان داد که تنها میانگین اثر ساده تلقیح یا عدم تلقیح A. alternata با وجود تریکودرما اختلاف معنی­داری (P < 0.05) از نظر محتوی فنل کل داشت و نتایج صفات رشدی، عملکردی نشان داد که تیمار T. harzianum بر هیچ کدام اثر معنی­داری نداشت. داده­های این تحقیق برای اولین بار نشان داد که A. alternata توانایی ایجاد بیماری برروی گندم نارین را داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Simultaneous Application of Trichoderma harzianum and Plant Mulch on Yield and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat (cv. Narin)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Mehrabani 1
  • A. Mohammadi 2
  • M. Khazaei 3
  • M. Jamialahmadi 4
1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Birjand University
3 Assistant Professor of Agriculture Department, Birjand University
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture, Birjand University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Trichoderma species are the main causes of decomposition and decay of agricultural residues and are considered for the control of plant pathogens, especially fungi and nematodes in the world. Trichoderma species have the ability to produce microbial enzymes such as xylanases, which are used in the paper and food processing industries. These enzymes improve the digestibility of nutrients in certain diets in ruminants and poultry, where there is no digestive enzyme that can digest the complex carbohydrates in the cell wall. These enzymes have the power to digest and hydrolyze these substances. South khorasan province due to hot and dry climate, water shortage and successive droughts, saline water in agriculture, pests and diseases, soil with low fertility for planting irrigated wheat needs cultivars resistant to these stresses. Narin cultivar is the latest cultivar introduced for this province. The characteristic of this cultivar are more compatibility with salinity stress areas and relative maturity with other wheat cultivars.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of simultaneous use of Trichoderma harzianum and plant mulch on yield and physiological characteristics of wheat of Narin cultivar and its effect on the interaction of this cultivar with Alternaria alternata in 2019-2020 in Birjand Faculty of Agriculture Research Farm an experiment asComplete randomization block design was performed with four replications. Treatments included control (without application of Trichoderma), Trichoderma as soil application, Trichoderma as leaf application in granulation stage, Trichoderma application as soil and leaf application in granulation stage. In the granulation stage, each experimental unit was divided into two parts and Alternaria leaf spot pathogen treatment at two levels (inoculation in the granulation stage and without inoculation) was considered as a sub-factor in the experiment. The purpose of using the pathogen treatment was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma in the presence of the pathogen. This fungus was prepared from the archives of the Plant Pathology Laboratory of Birjand University of Agriculture, which had previously been isolated from the wheat of this province. To inoculate this pathogen, a suspension with a concentration of 106 spores per ml of A. alternata was used from a 7-day fungus colony on PDA medium and its effect on physiological traits (including total phenol, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll) were investigated. To investigate the effect of different applications of Trichoderma on Narin cultivar from another part of the plot without pathogen treatment was analysis of growth traits, yield and yield components including chlorophyll index, including green and dry stem height, spike length, weight, grain yield, biological yield, number and weight of grains per spike, spikes number and weight per unit area were measured.
Results and Discussion: The aim of using pathogen treatment was to evaluate the biological control of Alternaria wheat leaf spot agent by T. harzianum in different methods by using Trichoderma in the presence of Alternaria in comparison with the absence of Alternaria and its effect on physiological traits (including total phenol, chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll) were evaluated. No symptoms of necrosis or leaf chlorosis were observed after pathogen inoculation. Analysis of physiological traits (total phenol, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll) showed that only the simple effect of inoculation or non-inoculation of Alternaria with Trichoderma significantly different (P <0.05) in terms of total phenol content. Due to the presence of Alternaria as a pathogen, it may lead to a reaction of the plant's defense system, and Trichoderma can also increase phenolic compounds to counteract the pathogen. Analysis of growth traits, yield and yield components showed that Trichoderma treatment had no significant effect on any of them.
Conclusion: This study, for the first time showed that A. alternata can cause disease on wheat Narin cultivar. Also, this research studied the effect of T. harzianum on physiological and functional characteristics of wheat Narin cultivar and results demonstrated that T. harzianum can have little effect on these characteristics of Narin cultivar. Concomitant use of Trichoderma in soil and leaves had a greater effect than separate application in roots or leaves. Also, according to other research, the effect of trichoderma varies depending on the environmental conditions including temperature and humidity, soil texture and structure and the type of wheat cultivar.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternaria
  • Leaf spot
  • Mulch
  • Phenol
  • Trichoderma
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