بررسی اثر حشره‌کشی عصاره دانه زیتون تلخ و پوست لیموترش روی شته مومی کلم (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) و شته سبز گندم (Schizaphis graminum Rondani)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

شته مومی کلم (Brevicoryne brassicae) و شته سبز گندم (Schizaphis graminum) به‌ترتیب از آفات مهم کلزا و گندم می‌باشند که بصورت قابل توجهی زراعت این محصولات را از طریق تغذیه بصورت مستقیم و انتقال عوامل بیماریزای ویروسی بصورت غیر مستقیم کاهش می‌دهند. پیدایش مقاومت به سموم شیمیایی و اثرات حاد و مزمن ناشی از کاربرد آن‌ها باعث استفاده از ترکیبات ثانویه گیاهی بصورت عصاره و اسانس به‌منظور کنترل آفات شده است. از جمله این ترکیب‌ها می‌توان به عصاره میوه زیتون تلخ و پوست لیموترش اشاره کرد. در این تحقیق اثر دو عصاره اتانولی مذکور در سه غلظت متفاوت (10، 50 و 80 میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر) روی درصد تلفات شته مومی کلم و شته سبز گندم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد عصاره اتانولی میوه زیتون تلخ در غلظت 80 میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر پس از 36 ساعت باعث 100 درصد مرگ و میر روی شته‌ها می‌شود که در مقایسه با عصاره پوست لیموترش به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر بود. همچنین در این مطالعه، مقدار فنل کل در عصاره میوه زیتون تلخ (74/2 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر) نسبت به عصاره پوست لیموترش (79/1 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر) بیشتر بوده است که می‌تواند با اثر کشندگی بالاتر زیتون تلخ روی این شته‌ها در ارتباط باشد. نتایج این تحقیق می‌تواند در کنترل شته‌های مذکور برای تولید محصولات سالم و ارگانیک مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying, the Insecticidal Effects of Melia azedarach and Citrus limonum Extracts on Two Aphid Species

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam Pahlavan Yali 1
  • Mohsen Mohammadi Anaii 2
1 Shahid Bahonar Kerman
2 Shahid Bahonar Kerman
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most principal plant food for 35 percent of the world's population, and canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important brassicaceous crops that play a major role in the development of edible oil. The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) and cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) are the main pests of wheat and canola, respectively, which can considerably limit profitable production of these crops either through direct feeding or via transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. Although chemical control is the most effective and easiest way to control aphids, but this method causes problems such as pesticide residues in food and environment, and development of resistance to insecticides. The utilization of plant extracts is an environmentally safe method that can be used in control of these aphids. Among these, the products of the Melia seed (Melia azedarach Linnaeus) and lemon peel (Citrus limonum Risso) can be noted. Negative associations between phenolic compounds present in plant species and aphid’s invasion have been recorded for some aphid species. In this study, our goal was to determine the amount of phenol in plant extracts of Melia seed and lemon peel and evaluate the toxicity of these compounds on the wheat aphid and cabbage aphid in various doses after different time periods.
Materials and methods: This research was conducted in a growth chamber (temperature 25 ± 1˚C, 65± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D). S. graminum and B. brassicae were bred on wheat (Pishtaz cultivar) and canola (Hyola401 cultivar), respectively. The extraction of Melia seed and lemon peel was carried out and then contact toxicity bioassay was done to evaluate the insecticidal effects of these extracts on nymphs of wheat and cabbage aphids using a completely randomized design. The leaves of wheat and canola plants, impregnated with three different concentrations of each extract (10, 50 and 80 g/ml) and dried. Thereafter the leaves were individually placed on agar gel 7.0% in Petri-dishes with a diameter of 6 cm. Then same age nymphs of wheat and cabbage aphids were separately released in Petri-dishes (20 aphids in each Petri-dish), and the number of dead nymphs was recorded after 12, 24 and 36 hours. This experiment was performed in three replicates for each treatment. Furthermore, the amount of phenolic compounds in two extract samples (Melia seed and lemon peel) was determined by Folin ciocalteu method, and the absorbance was measured at 725 nm using a spectrophotometer. The lethal effects of two tested extracts for each of aphid species (in each tested concentration and time period) were analyzed using T-test in SPSS v22 software. Variables of the mortality percent in three different concentrations and amount of total phenolic were evaluated using the one-way analysis of variance in SPSS. The comparison of differences between treatments means was done using Tukey’s test (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: concentration
  • Phenol
  • plant secondary metabolite
1- Abou-Fakhr Hammad E.M., Zournajian H., and Talhouk S. 2001. Efficacy of extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus, leaves and fruits against adults of the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of applied Entomology, 125: 483-488.
2- Abrosca B., Pacifico S., Cefarelli G., Mastellone C., and Fiorentino A. 2007. Limoncella apple, an Italian apple cultivar: phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Journal of Food Chemistry, 104: 1333-1337.
3- Ahankoub Ro M., Foutohi Ghazvini R., and Fattahi Moghadam J. 2014. Investigation biochemical diversity of peel and pulp from some natural citrus biotypes. Journal of Plant Production Research, 21 (4): 81-98. (In Persian)
4- Akhtar Y., and Isman M.B. 2004. Comparative growth inhibitory and antifeedant effects of plant extracts and pure allelochemicals on four phytophagous insect species. Journal of application Entomology, 128: 32-38.
5- Anurag Sh., and Rakesh G. 2009. Biological activity of some plant extracts against Pieris brassicae (Linn.). Journal of Biopesticides, 2(1): 26-31.
6- Aslam M., Razaq M., and Shahzad A. 2005. Comparison of different canola (Brassica napus L.) varieties for resistance against cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 7:781-782.
7- Birhanu M., Awoke Y., Tahgas A., and Raja N. 2011. Efficacy of Melia azedarach and Mentha pip rita Extracts Againts Cabbohidage Aphid, Brevicorynebrassicae L.. World Applied Science Journal, 12(11): 2150-2154.
8- Blackman R.L., and Eastop V.F. 2000. Aphids on the World’s crop. An identification and information guide, John Wiley Ltd, London, 466 p.
9- Blackman R.L., and Eastop V.F. 2007. Taxonomic issue. In: H.F. van Emden & R. Harrington, (Ed.)Aphids as crop pests. (pp. 1-29). Cromwell Press, London, UK.
10- Carpinella M.C., Giorda L.M., and Ferrayoli C.G. 2003. Palacios SM. Antifungal affects of different organic extracts from Melia azedarach L. on phytopathogenic fungi and their isolated activecomponents. Journal of Agricaltural Food Chemistry, 51(9): 2506-11.
11- Carvalho S.M., and Ferreira D.T. 1990. Santa-Barbara contra vaquinha. Ciência Hoje, 11: 65- 67.
12- Chaubey M.K. 2007. Toxicity of essential oils from cuminum cyminum Linnaeus (Umbelliferae), Piper nigrum Linnaeus (Piperaceae) and Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbelliferae) against stored-product Beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coloptera: Tenebrionidae). Electronic Journal of Environmental Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 6: 1719-1727.
13- Chong X.T., Tian G.Z., Cheng Z.I., and Yao Q.Q. 2009. Study on chemical constituents of the seeds of Melia azedarach L. Food Drug, 11: 1-30.
14- Chung Huang R., Tadera K., Yagi F., Minami Y., Okumara H., Iwagawa T., and Nakatani M. 1996. Limonoides from Melia azedarach. Phytochemistry, 43 (3): 581-583.
15- Civelek H.S., and Çolak A.M. 2008. Effects of Some Plant Extracts and Bensultap on Trichoferus griseus (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(6): 721-725.
16- Dilawari V.K., Singh K., and Dhaliwal G.S. 1994. Sensitivity of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) to Melia azedarach L. Pesticide Research Journal, 6: 71-74.
17- Donahay E., Zalach D., and Rindner M. 1992. Comparison of the sensitivity of the development stages of three strains of the red four beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to modified atmospheres. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85: 1450-1452.
18- Dragovi-Uzelac V., Savi Z., Brala A., Levaj B., Bursakovaevi D., and Bisko A. 2010. Evaluation of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) grown in the Northwest Croatia. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 48(2): 214-221.
19- Elllis P.R., and Singh R. 1993. A review of the host plants of the cabbage aphid, Brevicorynebrassicae L. (Homoptera, Aphididae). IOBC /WPRS bulltin, 16(5):192-201.
20- Ellis P.R., and Farrell J.A. 1995. Resistance to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) in six Brassica accessions in New Zeland. Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 23:25-29.
21- Escarpa A., and Gonzalez M.C. 2001. An overview of analytical chemistry of phenolic compounds in foods. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 31(2):57-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20014091076695.
22- Gaby S. 1996. Natural Pest and Disease Control published by Magraf Verlag, PO Box 105 97985 Weikersheim, Germany.
23- Gupta M.P. 2005. Efficacy of Neem leaf extract in combination with h cow urine against mustard aphid and its effect on Coccinellid predators. JNKVV Journal of Natural Product Radiance, 4 (2): 102-106.
24- Hadjiakhoondi A., Vatandoost H., Khanavi K., Sadeghipour-Roodsaric H.R., Vosoughi M., and Kazemi M. 2006. Fatty Acid Melia azedarach L. Fruits against Malaria Vector Composition and Toxicity of Anopheles stephensi. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 2(2): 97-102. (In Persian)
25- Iqbal M.F., Maqbool U., Asi M.R., and Aslam S. 2007. Determination of Pesticide residues in brinjal fruit at supervised trial. Journal of Animal Plant Science, 17(1- 2): 21-23.
26- Iqbal M.F., Kahloon M.H., Nawaz M.R., and Javaid M.I. 2011. Effectiveness of some botanical extracts on wheat aphid. Short Communication, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 21(1): 114-115.
27- Isman M.B., Guning P.J. and Spollen K.M. 1997. Tropical timber species as sources of botanical insecticides “In phytochemicals for pest control. (Eds. P.A. Hedin et al.) American chemical society symposium series, 658: 27-37.
28- Isman M.B. 2006. Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annual Review of Entomology, 51: 45-66.
29- Kelm M., and Gadomski H. 1995. Occurrence and harmfulness of the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) on winter rape. Materially Sesji Institutes Ochrony roslin, 5: 101: 103.
30- Khabir M., Ahmadi K., and shafiei F. 2015. The introduction of the bitter olive Flowers Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) as a aphid insecticides and different concentrations of ethanol extract of the Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) mortality under laboratory conditions. Proceedings of First National Conference on medicinal plants, traditional medicine and organic farming. Hamadan, 20 Novamber: 345 pp.
31- Klocke J.A., and Kubo I. 1982. Citrus limonoid by-products as insect control agents. Entomology Experimental Applied, 32: 299 -301.
32- Matsumura F. 1985. Toxicology of insecticides. Plenum Press, New York.
33- McDonald S., Prenzler P.D., Autolovich M., and Robards K. 2001. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chemistry, 73:73-84.
34- Meyers K.J., Watkins C.B., Pritts M.P., and Liu R.H. 2003. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of strawberries. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 51: 6887-6892.
35- Michels G., and Jr J. 1986.Graminaceous north American host plants of the greenbug with notes on biotypes. Southwestern Entomologist, 11(2): 55-66.
36- Murphy H.C. 1959. The epidemic of barley yellow dwarf on oats in introduction. Plant Disease Report Supply, 262- 316.
37- Najmizadeh H., Ahmadi K., and Salari A. 2013. Insecticidal activities of five plant derived chemicals on Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1758). Pharmacognosy communications, 3: 12-16. (In Persian)
38- Nault L.R., and Bradley R.H.E. 1969. Acquisition of maize dwarf mosaic virus by the greenbug, Schizaphisgraminum. Annual Entomology Society of America, 62(2): 403- 406.
39- Pascula Vilalobos M.J., and Robeldo A. 1998. Screening for anti- insect activity in Mediteranean plants. Journal of Industrial Crop and Product, 8: 183- 194.
40- Pedro D.K.N. 1996. Fumigant toxicity as the major route of insecticidal activity of citrus peel essential oil. Pest Science, 46(1):71-78.
41- Rahmani F., Haddad Khodaparast M.H., Elhami Raad A.H., and Khanzadeh F. 2013. Characterization of phenolic compounds present in Neem leaf extracts using HPLC and determination of their antioxidant activity. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 24(1): 103-117. (In Persian)
42- Ramful D., Bourdon T., Bourdon E., Tarrnus E., and Aruoma O.I. 2010. Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian Citrus fruits: Potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application. Toxicology, 278: 75-87.
43- Salari E., Ahmadi K., and Zamani deh Yaghubi R. 2012. Comparison effect of ethanolic seed extract of Melia azadirach L.against two aphid species. Journal of herbal drugs, 2(4): 223-228. (In Persian)
44- Salvatore A., Borkosky S., Willink E., and Bardon A. 2004. Toxic effects of lemon peel constituents on Ceratitis capitata. Journal of Chemistry and Ecology, 30: 323-333.
45- Singh H., and Singh Z. 1995. New records of insect-pests of rapeseed- mustard. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 53(9): 970.
46- Singh R., and Ellis P.R. 1993. Sources, mechanisms and bases of resistance in cruciferae to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 16: 21-35.
47- Srivastava A., and Guleria S. 2003. Evaluation of botanicals for mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) control in Brassica Himachal. Journal of Agricultural Research, 29 (1and2): 116-118.
48- Valladares G.R., Ferreyra D., Defacoll T., Carpinella M., and Palacios S. 1997. Laboratory evaluation of Melia azedarach extracts against the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 90 (3): 747-750.
49- Ventura M.U., and Ito M. 2000. Antifeedant activity of Melia azedarach (L.) extracts to Diabrotica speciosa (Genn.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetles. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 43: 215-219.
50- Wandscheer C.B., Duque J.E., Da Silva M., Fukuyama Y., Wohlke J.L., Adelmann J., and Fontana J.D. 2004. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Toxicon, 44: 829-835.
51- Wink M. 1993. Production and application of phytochemicals from an agricultural perspective. In: van Beek, T.A., Breteler, H. (Eds.), Journal of Phytochemistry and Agricalture, 34: 171-213.
52- Zahoor A., Hussain M.M., Akba R.M., Iqbal M.F., Ali J., and Ahmad M. 2015. Efficacy of extracts for controlling aphid at milking stage of wheat. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 2(8): 120–123.
53- Zamani R., Ahmadi K., and Salari E. 2010. Insecticidal activity of seed oil of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) on three aphid species and one stored product pest. 19th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 31 July- 3 August, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection,Tehran, P 250. (In Persian)
54- Zargari A. 1989. Iranian medicinal plants. Tehran University Publications, 6th ed., 4: 422-428.
55- Zettler J.L., and Cuperus G.W. 1990. Pesticide resistance in Tribolium castaneum (coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhizopertha Dominica (coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 1677-1681.