کنترل شیمیایی علف‌های هرز در مزارع زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد

چکیده

در این آزمایش به منظور بررسی امکان کنترل شیمیایی علف‌های هرز در مزارع زعفران، کارآیی علف‌کش های متری‌بیوزین (سنکور®) (5/562 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، مت‌سولفورون متیل + سولفوسولفورون (توتال®) (32 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، سولفوسولفورون (آپیروس®) (95/19 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، مزوسولفورون + یدوسولفورون + دی فلوفنیکان (اوتلو®) (96 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، تریاسولفورون + دایکامبا (لنتور®) (5/115 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، بن سولفورون متیل (لونداکس®) (30 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، اگزادیازون (رونستار®) (240 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، اکسی فلوروفن (گل®) (480 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، آترازین (گزاپریم®) (800 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، نیکوسولفورون (کروز®) (60 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، بروموکسینیل + ام سی پی آ (برومایسید®) (600 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، تری بنورون متیل (گرانستار®) (15 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، توفوردی + ام سی پی آ (یو 46 کمبی فلویید®) (5/1012 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، هالوکسی فوپ متیل (گالانت سوپر®) (108 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، بنتازون (بازاگران®) (1440 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار)، شاهد وجین دستی و شاهد بدون وجین مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی در مشهد در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا شد. علف‌های هرز غالب مزرعه خارلته، تلخه و چمن وحشی بودند. نتایج نشان داد تمامی علف‌کش‌های مورد بررسی باعث کاهش معنی‌دار تراکم و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز نسبت به شاهد بدون مبارزه شدند. در این میان، کارآیی علف‌کش متری‌بیوزین در کنترل علف‌های هرز بسیار مناسب بود بطوری‌که تراکم و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز در تیمار متری‌بیوزین کاملا مشابه تیمار شاهد وجین دستی بود. کاربرد علف‌کش متری‌بیوزین در پاییز بلافاصله پس از برداشت گل، و علف‌کش‌های هالوکسی فوپ متیل، بنتازون، اکسی فلوروفن، اکسادیازون، بن سولفورون متیل، آترازین و تریاسولفورون + دایکمبا در اوایل رویش علف‌های هرز در بهار ضمن کنترل مناسب علف‌های هرز باعث کاهش معنی‌دار تعداد و یا وزن تر گل زعفران نشدند و بنابراین به نظر می‌رسد امکان مصرف آنها در مزارع زعفران وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chemical Weed Control in Saffron (Crocus sativus) Fields

نویسنده [English]

  • majid abbaspoor
Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the saffron (Crocus sativus L). It is the world’s most expensive spice and has been widely used in many countries. It is also increasingly used for medicinal purposes. Weed control in this perennial, small and low growing crop, needs a lot of labor work. Chemical approach is one of the most effective methods for weed control in saffron. Currently, some herbicide options are available for applications in saffron. For example, satisfactory broadleaved weed control would be achieved by post-emergence application of metribuzin and ioxynil after harvesting saffron flowers. Application of glyphosate and/or 2, 4-D / 2, 4-DB are used to clean up the beds prior to the new season’s flowering and growth of saffron in New Zealand. The selective weed control of weeds in saffron has not been widely reported elsewhere but some in Iran. The choice of herbicide(s) depends on the kind of weeds present. In some literatures metribuzin showed promising results for weed control in saffron fields. It is selectively used for control of annual grasses and numerous broad-leaved weeds. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of 15 herbicides with different mode of actions, selected on the basis of dominant weed flora and previous studies, on weeds grown in saffron fields.
Materials and Methods A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides for weed control in saffron (Crocus sativus) in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad, in 2014-2015 growing season. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of metsulfuron-methyl + sulfosulfuron (Total®) at dose of 40 g ha-1, sulfosulfuron (Apirus®) at dose of 26.6 g ha-1, oxadiazon (Ronestar®) at dose of 2 l ha-1, oxyflurofen (Goal®) at dose of 2 l ha-1, mesosulfuron + idosulfuron + diflufenican (Othello®) at dose of l.6 l ha-1, metribuzin (Sencore®) at dose of 750 g ha-1 (applied after saffron harvest in autumn as pre emergence of weeds), triasulfuron + dicamba (Lintur®) at dose of 165 g ha-1, atrazine (Gesaprim®) at dose of 1000 g ha-1, Bensulfuron methyl (Londax®) at dose of 50 g ha-1, bromoxinyl + MCPA (Bromicide®) at dose of l.5 l ha-1, 2, 4-D + MCPA (U-46 combi fluid ®) at dose of l.5 l ha-1, nicosulfuron (Cruz®) at dose of l.5 l ha-1, haloxyfop methyl (Gallant super®) at dose of l l ha-1, bentazon (Basagran®) at dose of 3 l ha-1, tribenuron methyl (Granstar®) at dose of 20 g ha-1 plus weed free and weedy checks. Herbicides were sprayed at early stage of weed growth (2-3 leafy stage) (except for metribuzin which sprayed soon after flower harvest in autumn and pre emergence of weeds) with Matabi® rechargeable sprayer calibrated to deliver 330 l ha-1. Four weeks after spraying, density and dry matter of dominant weed species were measured. At harvest, flower number, flower fresh weight and dry matter of 50 stigmas were measured. Data were analysed by SAS (9.2) software and mean were grouped by Duncan multiple range test (alpha=0.05).
Results and Discussion Density and dry matter of dominant weed species i.e. Cirsium arvense, Acroptilon repense and Poa trivialis were significantly decreased by herbicide treatments when measured four weeks after spraying. Significant decrease in flower number and/or flower fresh weight of saffron occurred when sprayed with sulfosulfuron, nicosulfuron, 2, 4-D + MCPA, metsulfuron-methyl + sulfosulfuron, tribenuron methyl, mesosulfuron + idosulfuron + diflufenican and bromoxinyl + MCPA. Furtheremore, these herbicides can not be used for weed control in saffron. Metribuzin, oxadiazon, bentazon, haloxyfop methyl, oxyflurofen, bensulfuron methyl, triasulfuron + dicamba and atrazine caused no significant decrease in flower number and/or flower fresh weight of saffron and then can be recommended to use for weed control in saffron fields. In the case of the possible reverse impacts of these herbicides on saffron corms in long-term use, still more studies need to be done. Dry matter of 50-stigmas of saffron flowers were not significantly different among herbicide treatments.
Conclusions Metribuzin, oxadiazon, bentazon, haloxyfop methyl, oxyflurofen, bensulfuron methyl, triasulfuron + dicamba and atrazine caused no significant decrease in flower number and/or flower fresh weight of saffron and therefore can be recommended to use for weed control in saffron fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Broadleaf weeds
  • herbicide injury
  • herbicide screening
  • Saffron
  • Stigma
1- Abbasi M.E. 1996. The effect of different herbicides on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) weeds. M.Sc. Thesis in Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. 95 pages. (In Persian with English abstract)
2- Abbaspoor M., and Norozzadeh S. 2012. Efficacy of quizalofop-tephoryl on grass weeds grown in saffron fields. p. 734-736. Proceedings of the 4th Iranian Weed Science Congress, 6–8 Feb. 2012. Ahvaz, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
3- Abbaspoor M., Norozzadeh S., and Torabi H. 2011. Efficacy of some new herbicides on weeds grown in saffron fields. p. 2644-2646. Proceedings of the 7th Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 5–8 Sep. 2011. Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
4- Anonymous. 2016. Iran accounts for 94% of world saffron production. Available at http://theiranproject.com/blog/2015/05/11/iran-accounts-for-94-of-world-saffron-production/ (visited 30 January 2016).
5- Baghestani M.A., Zand E., Soufizadeh S., Eskandari A., Pourazar R., Vaysi M., and Nassirzadeh N. 2007. Efficacy evaluation of some dual purpose herbicides to control weeds in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Protection, 26:936-942.
6- Baghestani M.A., Zand E., Soufizadeh S., Jamali M., and Maighani F. 2007. Evaluation of sulfosulfuron for broadleaved and grass weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Iran. Crop Protection, 26:1385-1389.
7- Baghestani M.A., Zand E., Soufizadeh S., Beheshtian M., Haghighi V, Barjasteh A., Ghanbarani Birgani D., and Deihimfard R. 2008. Study on the efficacy of weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with tank mixtures of grass herbicides with broadleaved herbicides. Crop Protection, 27:104-111.
8- Barros, J.F.C., Basch G., Freixial R., and de Carvalho M. 2009. Effect of reduced doses of mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron to control weeds in no-till wheat under Mediterranean conditions. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 7:905-912.
9- Brink A., and Zollkau A. 2004. Optimisation of grass weed control with ATLANTIS (R) WG in winter cereals. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz-Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 637-646.
10- Cella L. 2002. Autumn weed control leads to a finer spring. Available at Http://www.interactiveturf.com/tips/2002_04.htm (visited 25 January 2016).
11- Dang J., Mang D., Pei X., and Wang V. 2007. Effects of herbicides on photosynthesis characteristics, yield and quality of winter wheat. Xibei Zhiwu Xuebao, 27:1438-1445.
12- Dang J., Zhang D., Pei X., and Wang J. 2008. Effect of herbicides on quality and activity of protect enzymes in flag leaves of high quality wheat. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 14:18-23.
13- Desmet E., Bulcke R., and Maeghe L. 2004. Field experiences with recent als-inhibitors on herbicide resistant blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.). Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 69:83-89.
14- Dhammu H.S., and Nickolson D.F. 2006. Metribuzin tolerance of EGA eagle rock wheat. 15th Australian Weeds Conference, 355-358.
15- Gehring, K., Thyssen S., and Festner T. 2006. Control of brome grasses (Bromus L. spp.) in winter cereals. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 659-665.
16- Golparvar P., Mirshekari B., and Borhani P. 2012. Application of herbicides with limited dose can play a major role in suitable weeds control in saffron fields. World Applied Sciences Journal, 20:1266-1269.
17- Hull R., Marshall R., Tatnell L., and Moss S.R. 2008. Herbicide-resistance to mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron in Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass). Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 73:903-912.
18- Ismail B.S., and Kalithasan K. 1997. Mobility of metsulfuron-methyl in tropical soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 35:1291-1300.
19- Jain H.C., and Tiwari J.P. 1992. Influence of herbicides on the growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max) under different spacing and seeding rates. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 37:86-89.
20- Kaps M.L., and Odneal M.B. 1994. Split and tank-mix preemergence application of herbicide for controlling weeds in grapes. Horticultural Science, 29:619-620.
21- Kim, J.S., Oh J.L., Kim T.J., Pyon J.Y., and Cho K.Y. 2005. Physiological basis of differential phytotoxic activity between fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and halofop-butyl-treated barnyardgrass. Weed Biology and Management, 5:39-45.
22- Lage M., and Cantrell C.L. 2009. Quantification of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) metabolites crocins, picrocrocin and safranal for quality determination of the spice grown under different environmental Moroccan conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 121: 366-373.
23- McGimpsey J.A., Douglas M.H., and Wallace A.R. 1997. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativas L.) production in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25:159-168.
24- Norouzzadeh S., Abbaspoor M., and Delghandi M. 2007. Chemical weed control in saffan fields of Iran. Acta Horticulture, 739:119-122.
25- Nepalia V., and Jain G.L. 2000. Effect of weed control and sulphur on yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and their residual effect on summer greengram (Phaseolus radiatus). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 45:483-488.
26- Rashed Mohassel M.H. 1992. Weed flora of saffron fields in South Khorasan. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 6:118-135.
27- Rola H., Sumislawska J., and Marczewski K. 2009. The effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on grain yield and technological quality of winter rye cultivars. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 49:179-184.
28- Sadrabadi-Haghighi R., and Ghanad-Toosi M.B. 2016. Effect of some pre-emergence herbicides on weed community and growth characteristics of flower and corm of saffron (Crocus sativus). Plant protection, 30 (in Press). Available at http://jpp.um.ac.ir/index.php/jpp/article/view/40210. (visited 27 January 2016) (In Persian with English abstract)
29- Sosnoskie L.M., Culpepper A.S., York A.C., Beam J.B., and Macrae A.W. 2009. Sequential applications for mesosulfuron and nitrogen needed in wheat. Weed Technology, 23:404-407.
30- Soufizadeh S., Sheibany K., Zand E., Baghestani M.A., Kashani F.B., and Nezamabadi N. 2007. Integrated Weed Management in Saffron (Crocus sativus). Acta Horticulture, 739: 133-137.
31- Tomilin C.D. 2003. The pesticide manual. BCPC (British crop protection council) .1399 p.
32- Vencill W. 2002. Herbicide Handbook. Weed Science Society of America. 8th edition. 491p.
33- Zand E., Baghestani M.A., Bitarafan M., and Shimi P. 2007. A Guideline for Herbicides in Iran. Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad Press, Mashhad. (In Persian).
34- Zand E., Baghestani M.A., Shimi P., Nezamabadi N., Mousavi M.R. and Mousavi S.K. 2012. Chemical Weed Control Guideline for Major Crops of Iran. Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad Press, Mashhad. (In Persian).