نوسان جمعیت، الگوی توزیع فضایی و مدیریت پسیل زبان گنجشک Psyllopsis discrepans Flor (Hem., Psyllidae) در شهر کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 رازی کرمانشاه

2 دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

ایجاد و گسترش فضای سبز یکی از روش های کاهش نسبی آلودگی هوا است. درختان زبان گنجشک یکی از گزینه‌های مناسب برای سایه گستری در فضای سبز می باشند. پسیل زبان گنجشک از جمله آفات مهم درخت زبان گنجشک می باشد که خسارت زیادی از طریق مکیدن شیره ی گیاهی و ایجاد گال های برگی روی این درخت ایجاد می کند. در این پژوهش با انجام نمونه برداری های منظم و هفتگی نوسانات جمعیت و توزیع فضایی آفت با استفاده از مدل های قانون توان تیلور و شاخص آیوائو محاسبه شد. کنترل آفت در دو فصل زمستان و بهار انجام شد. از سم استامی-پراید و روغن ولک در فصل زمستان برای کنترل تخم های این آفت استفاده شد، این مطالعه در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تیمار و چهار تکرار در سال 1393 در شهر کرمانشاه در فضای سبز دانشکده ی کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی انجام شد. در فصل بهار هم از تلفیق سموم استامی-پراید و ایمیداکلوپراید در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با شش تیمار و چهار تکرار جهت کنترل آفت استفاده شد. نتایج بدست آمده نشان داد که روی همه ی سنین پورگی، روغن ولک نتیجه ی بهتری نسبت به سم استامی پراید داشت و جهت کنترل تخم‏های P. discrepans در فصل زمستان مناسب بود. در سمپاشی فصل بهار علیه پوره ها تلفیق حشره کش ایمیداکلوپراید + کارت زرد چسبنده جهت کنترل آفت مؤثرتر از بقیه ی تیمارها نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Population Dynamic, the Spatial Distribution Pattern and Management of Ash Tree, Fraxinus rotundifolia psyllid Psyllopsis discrepans Flor (Hem., Psyllidae) in Kermanshah Province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • arezoo jamshidi 1
  • H. A. Vahedi 2
  • abassali zamani 2
1 razi kermanshah
2 Razi University, Kermanshah
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Due to increasing air pollution, one of the ways to reduce pollution is to develop the green space, the urban parks, domestic gardens and streets marginal, including the ash trees, which play a vital role in supporting urban by its beauty and reducing air pollution. One of the convenient options to overshadow ash trees in their gardens. The jumping plant-louse, Psyllopsis discrepans is a sap-suckerpest which has highly host -specific and feed mainly on the young leaves and sprouts, is considered as important ash pests. Large populations of the pest cause the leaf curl gall and distort which result in leaf scar and less aesthetic appearance of ash canopy. The pest causes plant weakness by the toxic action of the saliva injected during their feeding process. The nymphal instar secreted honeydew which stimulates fungal growth on plant organs. There are a number of psyllid control methods which each of them has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this work was to verify the population fluctuation and assessing the spatial distribution of P. discrepans, in ash tree, Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill (Oleaceae) and in order to develop the best psyllid control plan, it is important that to weigh out the most effective options to reduce the population of this pest, in Kermanshah, western region of Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this study the monitoring of P. discrepans population was carried out in urban areas of infested trees, using yellow adhesive traps with 50 m far from each other. Two sampling methods were took place the regular weekly from March 2014 to May 2015. nymphs tend to cling to the foliage when disturbed while the adults tend to jump and fly away. These differences in habit necessitated the use of two sampling techniques. The counts of eggs and nymphs were made by taking samples at each infested tree. The samples were placed individually in plastic bags and chilled in a refrigerator until they could be observed under a dissecting microscope and the counts made. Adult populations were sampled by yellow sticky traps. The counts obtained for the various life stage intervals are recorded. The population dynamics and spatial distribution models was calculated, using Taylor’s law and Iowa's model. For the winter and spring chemical pest control Acetamiprid insecticide and the winter oil (volk oil) were employed in a randomized complete block design with three treatments and four replications for the eggs control in 2014 in the green space. In the spring a combination of pesticides, acetamiprid and imidaclopriyd, was done in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replications were used for adults and nymphal stages control in 2015 at the faculty of agriculture, Razi University in Kermanshah green space.
Results and Discussion: The results show that P. discrepans has two generations per year. The spring generation occurs in early April, the summer generation appears from late of June to beginning of October. The insect overwinters as eggs that hatch in early spring. The Taylor’s law showed cumulative spatial distribution in both years and the Iowa's model showed randomized spatial distribution in 2014, but showed cumulative spatial distribution in 2015. The Iowa's model based on coefficients of determination obtained (R=0.996) compared to the Taylor’s law (R=0.992) had a higher correlation with the data used to fit the data better than the Taylor rule. The pest control methods tested to reduce pest population levels, during winter and spering, including chemical control, physical control and combination of them. The chemical control results by volk oil and acetamiprid in compared with the control (water) in winter showed that effect of volk oil spray was better than acetamiprid on mortality all of stages. The results for pest control in the spring showed that the combination of spray chemical, imidacloprid + yellow sticky card trap to control this pest were more effective than the other treatments. The yellow sticky card trap supports Anthocoris sp. at the field condition, during chemical control program. In conclusion, the population dynamics of P. discrepans related to temperature and humidity. P. discrepan populations were found during month of the year, reaching their peak in May and September. Average and maximum temperatures showed a significant correlation with the psyllidae population fluctuation, affecting it positively. Heavy rain periods and low temperatures were not restricting, but they caused a reduction in population.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abundance
  • Insect fluctuation
  • Pest management
  • Population dynamism
  • Pesticide application
  • Psyllopsis discrepans
  • Sticky card
  • Urbanization
1- Arlando P.S., and Torres L.M. 2005. Spatial distribution and sampling of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lep.: Thaumetopoeidae) populations on pinus pinstar. Foresrt ecology and management, 210: 1-7.
2- Chazeau J. 1985. Predaceous Insects. p. 211-246. In W. Helle and M.W. Sabelis (ed.) Spider mites: their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
3- Degooyer T.A., Pedigo L.P., and Ric M.E. 1998. Evaluation of grower-oriented sampling techniques and proposal of management program for potato leafhopper (Homoptera:Cicadellidae) in alfalfa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91: 143-149.
4- Demirozer O., and Bilginturan S. 2014. First report of Psyllopsis repens Loginova,1936 (Hemiptera:Psylloidea) from Isparta,Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38: 522-524.
5- Feng M.G., and Nowierski R.M. 1992. Spatial distribution and sampling plans for four species ceral aphid (Hom,: Aphididae) infesting spring wheat in southwestern Idaho. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3): 830-837.
6- Boshier D., Cordero J., Harris S., Pannell J., Rendell S., Savill P., and Stewart J. 2005. Ash Species in Europe: Biological Characteristics and Practical Guidelines for Sustainable Use. University of Oxford, Oxford. 128 p.
7- Gharalari A.H., Nansen C., Lawson D.S., Gilley J., Munyaneza J.E., and Vaughn K. 2009. Knockdown mortality, repellency, and residual effects of Insecticides for control of adult Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(3): 1032-1038.
8- Hadian A., and seidalaslami H. 2000. Use yellow sticky traps to estimate the density of psyllid nymphs without wings. Fourteenth Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Isfahan University of Technology. Page 100.) in Persian)
9- Hall D.G., Hentz M. G., and Adair Jr R.C. 2008. Population Ecology and Phenology of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Two Florida Citrus Groves. Environmental Entomology, 37(4): 914-924.
10- Hatami B., Tallaei L., Rakhshani H., Mazaheri A., and Etemadi N. 2012. Important pests of garden plants (trees, shrubs, grasses and cover). Parak Publishing Corporation, publisher of the country's municipalities and village administrations. 196 pages.) in Persian)
11- Keshavarz A. 2014. Ash tree. Available at http://www.plantdiseases.blogfa.com/category/137/.
12- Malenovsky I., and Jerinic-prodanovic D. 2011. A revised description ofPsyllopsis repens Loginova, 1963 (Hemiptera: Psyllida: Psyllidae), with first records from Europe. Archives of Biological Science Belgrade, 63: 275-286.
13- Nestel D.H., Cohen N., Saphir M., and Mendei Z. 1995. Spatial distribution of scale insects: comparative study using Taylor power law. Environmental Entomology, 24: 506-512.
14- Omid R., and Zeinali S. 2011. Study on important pests of Chitgar Forest Park. Full papers Botanical Garden of the National Congress, 12 pages.) in Persian)
15- Rajabi Gh. 2008. Ecology of Insects (with regard to the situation in Iran and to emphasize the practical tips). The organization promotes the Ministry of Agriculture, agricultural research and training. 649 p.) in Persian)
16- Rajabi Mazhar N., Sadeghi S. E., and Yarmand H. 2007. Report of Psyllaephagus clarips (Hym.: Encyrtidae) on Psyllaeopsis repens in Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 1(2): 211. (in Persian with English abstract)
17- Sabeti H. 2008. Forests, trees and Iran shrubs. Yazd University Press. 806 p.) in Persian)
18- Shafaghi F., Golmohammadi Gh., Ranjbar S., Khosravi M., and Asgari M. 2013. Host preference and population dynamics of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on citrus in three provinces of southern Iran. Plant Pests Research, 3(3):45-57.) in Persian with English abstract)
19- Young L.J., and Young L.H. 1998. Statistical Ecology. Kluwer Academic Pub. Boston, USA.