اثر گرمادهی با امواج مایکروویو بر مرگ و میر شب پره آرد Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. و شپشه دندانه دار Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. و تعیین انرژی مصرفی آن در محصول کشمش

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

کنترل آفات انباری یکی از مراحل مهم پس از برداشت محصول می‌باشد. گرمادهی با مایکروویو روشی سازگار با محیط زیست برای کنترل آفات انباری می‌باشد. در این تحقیق گرمایش مایکروویو برای کنترل دو گونه آفت مهم کشمش انبار شده مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. نمونه‌های 70 گرمی از کشمش به وسیله لارو سن پنجم شب پره آرد Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. و حشره کامل شپشه دندانه دار Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. آلوده شدند. این نمونه‌ها تحت تابش امواج مایکروویو با فرکانس 2450 مگاهرتز در توان‌های 900، 720 و 450 وات با زمان‌های 20، 30، 40 و 50 ثانیه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد در همه آزمایشات، مرگ و میر با افزایش زمان تیماردهی افزایش می یابد. همچنین ارتباط مستقیمی بین نرخ مرگ و میر و سطوح توان‌های مایکروویو مشاهده شد. تلفات کامل آفات در توان 900 وات و زمان 50 ثانیه مشاهده گردید. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق و مزایای منحصر به فرد روش تیماردهی مایکروویو از قبیل سرعت بالا و عدم ایجاد پسماند‌های مضر پیشنهاد می شود که این روش جایگزین روش‌های شیمیایی مبارزه با آفات گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Microwave Heating on the Mortality of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and Determination of Energy Consumed for Raisin Product

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Sadeghi 1
  • Masoud Taghizadeh 2
1 College of Abouriahan, University of Tehran
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The suitable weather conditions of Iran makes it as one of the most talented country in producing of the various agricultural products such as grapes and raisins and has a great history in this field. Raisin is a commercial dried fruit, produced by drying of ripe seedless grapes by the moisture content of 16%. A major problem in the production, storage and marketing of stored products is infestation by insect pests. A number of insect species pose a potential threat to a variety of stored products. The Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Have a widespread distribution in the most part of the world. These species are recognized as the cosmopolitan pests attacking stored-products and cause serious losses both in quantity through feeding damage and quality by contaminating the product with its cast skin and frass. Considering economic importance of pests and problems arising from the use of chemical insecticides and fumigants, it is necessary to replace them with the other appropriate methods. The traditional methods of pest control, while having many advantages such as ease of operation and low cost, have some disadvantages such as slow operations, creation of environmental pollution residues, negative impact on product quality and health hazards on the operator. The use of alternative methods seems to be necessary because of concerns about the health hazards of chemical pesticides and its environment pollution. The researches has been conducted on the ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, cold treatment, conventional hot air or water heating and novel radio frequency and microwave dielectric heating for controlling the insects. The microwave heating is based on the transformation of alternating electromagnetic field energy into thermal energy by affecting the polar molecules of a material. The most important characteristic of the microwave heating method is volumetric heating. Dielectric heating which covers both radio frequency and microwave has been investigated for insect control in foods. Microwaves radiation are a part of electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths less than radio waves and more than infrared waves, which their frequency range are 300MHz to 30GHz.
Materials and Methods: Two insect species, the lesser grain borer, O. surinamensis L. and mediterranean flour moth, E. kuehniella Zeller. Were reared under the laboratory condition at temperature of 27±2 C and relative humidity of 65%±5. The lesser grain borer was reared on the medium contains 99% wheat flour mixed along with 1% brewer’s yeast and the mediterranean flour moth were reared the medium contains on 90% wheat flour mixed along with 10% brewer’s yeast. In this study, the microwave oven (Media -MW-F-282ELKS) was used which operates at 2450 MHz and variable power levels. The samples were exposed to microwave treatments at three power levels (450, 270 and 900W) for four exposure times (20, 30, 40 and 50s). Each treatment (power and exposure time combination) was replicated three times.
Results and Discussion: The mortality of E. kuehniella at the highest level of microwave power (900W) and for 20, 30, 40 and 50s exposure times were 51.67%, 71.63%, 91.53% and 100%, respectively. For the microwave power of 900W and exposure time of 20, 30, 40 and 50 s the mortality of O. surinamensis was 68.03%, 88.23%, 91.67% and 100%, %, respectively. The results showed, at a power level of 450W and an exposure time of 20s, the mortality of E. kuehniella and O. surinamensis were 20% and 33.33%, respectively. As the power increases to 720 and 900W, the mortality of E. kuehniella and O. surinamensis enhances to 33.33% and 56.63%, respectively. With increasing the exposure time, higher mortality was achieved at lower power levels. For the microwave power of 720W and exposure time of 40s, the mortality of E. kuehniella was 61.53%. When the exposure time was increased to 50s, the mortality of E. kuehniella was achieved 86.63% for the power of 720W. Also for the microwave power of 450W and the exposure time of 50s, the mortality of O. surinamensis was obtained 78.33%. When the microwave power was increased to 900W, the mortality of 100% was obtained.
Conclusion: The results showed the complete mortality for the insects, E. kuehniella and O. surinamensis, were at 900 W and exposure time of 50s. The lowest rate of mortality for both of them was observed at 450 W and exposure time of 20 s. The increase of microwave power and exposure time or both together lead to increase of mortality. It can be concluded that the mortality was affected by microwave power and exposure time.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ephestia kuehniella
  • Oryzaephilus surinamensis
  • Microwave Heating
  • Pesticide
  • Stored pests
1- Ayvaz A., and Tunçbilek A. Ş. 2006. Effects of gamma radiation on life stages of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Pest Science, 79(4), 215-222.
2- Bagheri-Zenouz E. 1996. Pests and Storage products and methods of combating them. The first volume, beetles harmful Food & industrial Tehran University Publication, 359 pages (In Persian).
3- FAO. 2012. Food and Agricultural commodities production. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. Visited on 2016-02-2.
4- Finkelman S., Navarro S., Rindner M., and Dias R. 2006. Effect of low pressure on the survival of Trogoderma granarium Everts, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) at 30 °C. Journal of Stored Products Research, 42(1), 23-30.
5- Hagstrum D.W., and Flinn P.W. 1992. Integrated pest management of stored-grain insects, In: D.B. Sauer, ed. Storage of Cereal Grain and Their Products. pp. 535-562. Amr. Assoc. Cereal Chem., St. Paul, Minnesota.
6- Halverson S.L., Plarre R., Bigelow T.S., and Lieber K. 1998. Recent advance in the use of EHF energy for the control of insect in stored products. American Society of Agriculture Engineers Annu. Meeting, Orlando,Florida (USA). Paper No. 986052.
7- Iamanaka B.T., de Menezes H.C., Vicente E., Leite R.S.F., and Taniwaki M.H. 2007. Aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxins occurrence in sultanas and dried figs commercialized in Brazil. Journal of Food Control, 18, 454-457.
8- Isikber A.A., and Oztekin S. 2009. Comparison of susceptibility of two stored-product insects, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller and Tribolium confusum du Val to gaseous ozone. Journal of stored products research, 45: 159-164.
9- Johnson J.A., Vail P.V., Soderstrom E.L., Curtis C.E., Brandl, D.G., Tebbets, J.S., and Valero., K.A. 1998. Integration of nonchemical postharvest treatment for control of navel organge worm (Lep.: Pyralidae) and India meal moth (Lep.: Pyralidae) in walnuts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91: 1437-1444.
10- Kader A., and Hussein M. 2009. Harvest and Postharvest Handling of Dates. Project on the Development of Sustainable Dates Palm Production System in the GCC Countries of Arabian Peninsula. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas.
11- Manickavasagan A., Alahakoon P.M.K., Al-Busaidi T.K., Al-Adawi S., Al-Wahaibi A.K., Al-Raeesi A.A., Al-Yahyai R., and Jayas D.S. 2013. Disinfestation of stored dates using microwave energy. Journal of Stored Products Research, 55: 1-5.
12- Moghaddasi R., and Alishahi M. 2007. Study of effective factors on Iran's share in the global market of agricultural products (Case Study; pistachios and raisin). Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1: 21-37.
13- Nelson S.O. 1995. Assessment of RF and microwave electric energy for stored-grain insect control. Annu. Internat. ASAE Meeting, June 18-23, 1995. Chicago, Illinois. American Society of Agriculture Engineers. St. Joseph, Michigan, 16 pp.
14- Nelson S.O. 1996. Review and assessment of radio-frequency and microwave energy for stored-grain insect control. Trans. American Society of Agriculture Engineers, 39: 1475-1484.
15- Oles R.G. 1982. Constsnt dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae. Journal of Radio Science. 17: 145-148.
16- Ondracek J., and Brunnhofer V. 1984. Dielectric properties of insect tissues. Journal of General Physiology, 3: 251-257.
17- Purohit P., Jayas D.S., Yadav B.K., Chelladurai V., Fields P.G., and White N.D.G. 2013. Microwaves to control Callosobruchus maculatus in stored mung bean (Vigna radiata). Journal of Stored Products Research, 53: 19-22.
18- Tang J., Mitcham E., Wang S., and Lurie S. 2007. Heat treatments for postharvest pest control: Theory and Practice. The Centre for Biosciences and Agriculture International (CABI), Cambridge, Pp. 349
19- UNEP. 1999. United Nations Environment Programme, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, Ozon Action Programme, Methyl Bromide Phase-Out Strategies, A Global Compilation of Laws and Regulations. United Nations Publication, ISBN: 92-807-1773-1, available from http://www.unep.fr/ozonaction/information/mmcfiles/3020-e.pdf
20- Vadivambal R., Jayas D.S., and White N.D.G. 2007. Wheat disinfestation using microwave energy. Journal of Stored Products Research, 43: 508–514.
21- Wang S., Tang J., Johnson J.A., Mitcham E., Hansen J.D., Cavalieri R.P., Bower J., and Biasi B. 2002. Process protocols based on radio frequency energy to control field and storage pests in in-shell walnuts. Postharvest Biology and Technology 26: 265–273.
22- Zouba A., Khoualdia O., Diaferia A., Rosito V., Bouabidi H., and Chermiti B. 2009. Microwave treatment for postharvest control of the date moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae. Journal of Plant Protection, 2(4): 173-184.