ارزیابی روش های کنترل علف های هرز بر عملکرد چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مشهد

3 مرکز تحقیقات خراسان رضوی

4 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر کنترل کامل علف های هرز به وسیله وجین دستی و همچنین دو ترکیب علف کش انتخابی در مبارزه با علف های هرز پهن برگ چغندرقند در سطوح مختلف مصرف نیتروژن بر میزان عملکرد و خصوصیات کیفی چغندرقند، آزمایشی در سال 1393 در شهرستان تربت جام بصورت طرح آماری کرت های یکبار خرد شده در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل 4 سطح مختلف نیتروژن (0، 100، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به عنوان عامل اصلی، استفاده از تیمارهای علف کشی کلریدازون + فن مدیفام (هر یک به مقدار 5 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و متامیترون + فن مدیفام (هر یک به مقدار 5 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. چهار هفته پس از اعمال تیمارها، نمونه برداری از علف هرز و گیاه زراعی با استفاده از کوادرات 5/0× 5/0 از خطوط وسط هر کرت انجام شد. نمونه ها پس از برداشت برای تعیین وزن خشک، در آون با 75 درجه سانتی گراد به مدت 48 ساعت خشک و سپس وزن شدند. در برداشت نهایی، نمونه برداری از نیمه انتهایی خطوط وسط هر کرت انجام برداشت شده و جهت تعیین عیار، نیتروژن مضره، سدیم، پتاسیم با استفاده از دستگاه بتالایزر به آزمایشگاه بخش چغندرقند مرکز تحقیفات کشاورزی انتقال یافت. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که کاربرد کود ازته و تیمارهای علف کشی، اختلاف معنی داری با هم در سطوح پنج و یک درصد داشتند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل شده، تراکم علف هرز تحت تأثیر مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن قرار نگرفت در حالی که افزایش نیتروژن مصرفی باعث افزایش وزن خشک علف های هرز در واحد سطح شد، بطوری که بالاترین آن در تیمار کاربرد 200 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن در هکتار به همراه عدم وجین علف های هرز به مقدار 292 گرم در هر متر مربع حاصل شد. بیشترین عملکرد ریشه چغندرقند مربوط به تیمار کنترل کامل علف های هرز و کاربرد 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به مقدار 56980 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. در بین تیمارهای کنترل شیمیایی علف های هرز، بیشترین عملکرد ریشه چغندرقند در تیمار علف کش متامیترون + فن مدیفام و مصرف 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به میزان 47880 کیلوگرم در هکتار حاصل شد. بیشترین عملکرد قند خالص به ترتیب در ترکیب تیماری کنترل کامل علف های هرز و کاربرد 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن به میزان 9760 کیلوگرم در هکتار و نیز استفاده از علف‌کش متامیترون + فن مدیفام همراه با کاربرد 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به مقدار 7720 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد. همچنین بالاترین درصد قند خالص و ناخالص در تیمار عدم کاربرد نیتروژن به همراه عدم کنترل علف-های هرز به ترتیب به مقدار 71/18 و 34/21 درصد حاصل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of weed control methods on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield at different levels of nitrogen

نویسندگان [English]

  • AliAsghar Chitband 1
  • Seyed Behnam Kalali 2
  • Alireza Ghaemi 3
  • Saeed JahediPoor 4
1 Lorestan University of Korramabad
2 Azad University of Mashhad
3 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi
4 Agriculture Collage of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Weed competition is one of the major factors which limit sugar beet production in the world. Weed – crop interactions are based on competition for water, nutrients and light and allelopathic effects may also play a small role. In sugar beet weed interference, all these factors are important too, but the light is of prime importance. Due to the fact that a lot of weeds can grow above the sugar beet canopy and reduce the amount of photosynthetic radiation reaching the crop, these weeds are stronger competitors compared to smaller weeds. In much sugar beet growing areas dicot weeds of the families Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and Polygonaceae are of major importance. The monocots are less important compared to dicot weeds. Competition from uncontrolled annual weeds that emerge within 8 weeks of sowing or within 4 weeks of the crop reaching the two-leaf stage can reduce root yields by 26–100% .Weeds that emerge 8 weeks after sowing, and particularly after the sugar beet plants have eight or more leaves, are less likely to affect yield. Although tractor hoeing and hand labour are still used in many production areas, herbicides have been the primary method of weed control in sugar beet. The effectiveness of pre-emergence residual herbicides decreases with reductions in rainfall or soil wet content. Therefore, less than 10 % of the total sugar beet crop is treated with pre-emergence herbicides. The remaining 90 % depends solely on a selection of post-emergence herbicides to maintain season-long weed control. The major herbicides are phenmedipham, chloridazon, metamitron. Mixtures of post-emergence, broad spectrum herbicides have to be applied to control the wide range of weed species in sugar beet crops.
Materials and Methods: To study the effects of weeds control by hand weeding and herbicides combination with two selective herbicides at different levels of nitrogen application on sugar beet yield and quality characteristics, an experiment carried out in TorbateJam Township as statistical design with split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2014. Experiment treatments included, the main factor involving four levels of different Nitrogen application (0, 100. 150 and 200 Kg.ha-1), sub factor involving combination of chloridazon + phenmedipham and metamitron + phenmedipham at 5 Kg.ha-1 herbicides. Four weeks after treatments, sampling of weeds and sugar beet carried out in middle of the plots with 0.5 × 0.5 quadrate. Then, samples were dried at oven-dried at 75 °C for 48 h and weighed. At the final harvest, to determine the grade, amino nitrogen, sodium, potassium with Betalyzr at sugar sector of Agricultural Center laboratory, sampling was removed from the middle of each plot.
Results Discussion: The results showed that application of nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide treatments were significantly different from each other at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. Based on experiment results, the highest root yield of sugar beet was obtained hand weeding with 200 kg N.ha-1 treatments. In between treatments of weed chemical control, metamitron + phenmedipham herbicides with 200 kg N.ha-1 was showed the highest root yield of sugar beet. High net sugar beet yield also was obtained at complete weed control with 200 kg N.ha-1, and metamitron + phenmedipham herbicides application with 200 kg N.ha-1 treatments. Also, the highest net and gross sugars were obtained at without weed control + 0 kg N.ha-1 treatments.
Conclusion: In conclusion, According to results of this study root yield and net and gross sugar were increased by increasing 200 kg nitrogen per hectare. Also, the highest net and gross sugar yield related to the using of hand weeding and combination herbicides of metamitron + phenmedipham and chloridazon + phenmedipham and application of 200 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer with weed control as well. Between weed controls treatments, root yield were increased by hand weeding compared to herbicide application and between herbicide treatments at Nitrogen different levels, by using of metamitron + phenmedipham than chloridazon + phenmedipham. Between chemical treatments, net and gross sugar yield, shoot dry weight and dry matter yield of sugar beet were more in combination of metamitron + phenmedipham than chloridazon + phenmedipham. While, weeds density and biomass were lesser in herbicide combination of metamitron + phenmedipham compared to chloridazon + phenmedipham. On the other hand, among treatments interaction, the highest root yield and percent of sugar and pure sugar were obtained by 200 kg per hectare Nitrogen fertilizer accompanied weeds control and without weeds control with lack of Nitrogen application respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Broad leaf
  • Hand weeding
  • Herbicide
  • sugar percent
  • Weed
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