بررسی اثر روش های کاشت پیاز خوراکی (Allium cepa L.) بر خصوصیات رشدی اویارسلام ارغوانی (Cyperus rotundus L.) تحت سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر روش های کاشت پیاز خوراکی بر خصوصیات رشدی اویارسلام ارغوانی تحت سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن، آزمایشی در سال 1392 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل سه روش کاشت پیاز خوراکی (بذر، سوخچه و نشاء) و فاکتور دوم شامل سه سطح مختلف نیتروژن (50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار) بود. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد در طی فصل رشد حداکثر میزان رشد اویارسلام ارغوانی مربوط به روش کاشت مستقیم بذر و سطوح بالای نیتروژن بود بطوری که بعد از 10 هفته پس از کاشت، بیشترین مقدار ارتفاع (33/92 سانتی متر)، سطح برگ (65/446 سانتی متر مربع)، وزن خشک اندام هوایی (306/7 گرم در بوته)، تعداد غده (33/15 غده در گلدان) و وزن خشک کل اندام زیرزمینی (369/5 گرم در بوته) در روش کاشت مستقیم بذر و سطوح بالای نیتروژن (100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بدست آمد. همچنین در طی فصل رشد کمترین میزان رشد این علف هرز مربوط به روش کاشت سوخچه و سطوح پایین نیتروژن (50 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. از طرفی، نتایج این آزمایش حاکی از واکنش مثبت اویارسلام به مقادیر بالای کود نیتروژن می‏باشد و نشان می‏دهد کشاورزان با مصرف نیتروژن بیشتر غده‏دهی اویارسلام را نیز افزایش خواهند داد و این قطعاً به ضرر گیاه زراعی خواهد بود. بنابراین استفاده از روش کاشت سوخچه و سطوح متوسط نیتروژن (50 و100 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در زراعت پیاز جهت به حداقل رساندن خسارت علف‌هرز اویارسلام ارغوانی توصیه می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effect of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Sowing Methods on Growth Characteristics of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) under Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nosratollah Karimi Arpnahy
  • Seyed Vahid Eslami
  • Sohrab Mahmoodi
  • Sayyari Mohammad Hasan
University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Increasing crop competitive ability is an important part of integrated weed management (IWM). In this regard, identifying weeds reaction to soil fertility status for developing fertilizing methods, as components of IWM programs, is a necessity.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the growth characteristics of purple nutsedge under the conditions of interference with onion, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of University of Birjand in 2013. The first factor included three sowing methods of onion (seed sowing, onion set and transplanting) and the second factor included three levels of nitrogen (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1, equivalent to 25, 50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil), urea fertilizer with a purity of 46% was used for this purpose.
Results and Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed that sowing method and nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, leaf area, aboveground dry weight as well as tuber number and underground dry weights. Moreover, the interaction between sowing methods and nitrogen levels had a significant effect on plant height, leaf area, aboveground dry weight as well as tuber number and underground dry weights. The results of the comparisons of the mean for the interaction of planting methods and different levels of nitrogen indicated an increased weeds growth in direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen in weed height trait, so that the greatest nutsedge height during the growing season (92.33 cm) was obtained at direct seeding method and high nitrogen levels . Moreover, the lowest weed height during the growing season was obtained at onion set planting method and 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen. The highest leaf area of purple nutsedge at ten weeks after planting (446.65 cm2), was obtained in direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen, and the lowest value for this trait (203.38 cm2), was observed in onion set planting method. The greatest shoot dry weight of purple nutsedge during the growing season was observed in direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen. The maximum amount of this trait at eight and ten weeks after planting was achieved in the level of 100 kg N ha-1 which was about 3.797 and 7.306 gr plant-1, respectively. Also the minimum shoot dry weight of weed was produced in onion set planting method and their amounts were about, 1.161 and 4.229 gr plant-1 at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. The greatest tuber number of purple nutsedge during the growing season were observed with seed planting method which were 7 and 15.33 tuber per pot at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. Moreover, the minimum tuber number of weed was produced in onion set planting method and were about 1.66 and 5.66 tuber per pot at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively. The maximum underground dry weight of purple nutsedge during the growing season was obtained at direct seeding method and high levels of nitrogen. The maximum amount of this trait at eight and ten weeks after planting was obtained in the level of 100 kg N ha-1 which were about 2.472 and 5.396 gr plant-1, respectively .The minimum underground dry weight of weed was achieved in onion set planting method which were about, 0.888 and 1.873 gr plant-1 at eight and ten weeks after planting, respectively.
Conclusion: Overall ANOVA results showed that the sowing method and level of nitrogen as well as their interaction had a significant effect on all studied traits of purple nutsedge. Evaluation of growth characteristics of purple nutsedge under the conditions of interference with onion showed that the greatest and lowest growth of purple nutsedge were obtained where seed and onion sets planting methods were implemented, respectively. Moreover, the results indicated a positive response of purple nutsedge to high levels of nitrogen. Thus, in order to minimize the damage caused by purple nutsedge, the application of 100 kg N ha-1 nitrogen in onion set method is recommended as the most appropriate treatment for the management of purple nutsedge in infected onions farms. However, this study was conducted under greenhouse conditions and there is no doubt that repeating the test in the field is essential for verifying the results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Nitrogen fertilizer
  • Sowing methods of onion
  • Tuber
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