اثر آفتاب‏دهی و کود حیوانی در کنترل نماتد سیستی مزارع چغندرقند Heterodera schachtii Schmidt

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان

چکیده

جهت بررسی امکان کنترل نماتد سیستی چغندر قند (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) در مزارع آلوده آزمایش‌هایی با استفاده از روش‏های آفتاب‏دهی و استفاده از کود حیوانی نپوسیده در مزارع آلوده اطراف کارخانه قند اصفهان در منطقه جی و قهاب صورت پذیرفت. چهار تیمار این آزمایش شامل، استفاده از روش آفتاب دهی خاک با به کارگیری ورقه‌های پلاستیکی شفاف، استفاده از کود حیوانی تازه، تلفیق پوشش ورقه‌های پلاستیکی و کود حیوانی و شاهد بدون انجام هیچ گونه عملیات در سه تکرار در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی بود که در زمینی آلوده به نماتد مذکور طی دو سال انجام گردید. داده‏های مربوط به جمعیت نهایی تعداد سیست‏های پر و تعداد تخم و لارو سن دوم موجود در هر سیست و در هر گرم خاک مبنای تجزیه و تحلیل آماری قرار گرفت. فاکتور تولید مثل و درصد کاهش و یا افزایش جمعیت نماتود سیستی چغندرقند، در هر تیمار نسبت به جمعیت اولیه‏ی همان تیمار در سال‏های اول، دوم و میانگین آنها در مجموع دو سال آزمایش محاسبه گردید. نتایج نشان داد تیمار تلفیق کود حیوانی و آفتاب دهی در سال اوّل، دوّم و در مجموع دو سال بیشترین اثر را در کاهش جمعیت نهایی نماتد سیستی چغندرقند نسبت به سایر تیمارها و شاهد داشته است. تیمارهای کود حیوانی و آفتاب دهی به تنهایی از لحاظ آماری تفاوتی با یکدیگر نداشتند و هر دو با هم در یک گروه آماری نسبت به تیمار تلفیق کود حیوانی و آفتاب دهی و نیز شاهد قرار گرفتند. تیمار تلفیق کود حیوانی و آفتاب دهی در سال اول، دوم و میانگین دو سال به ترتیب با 04/0، 003/0 و 021/0 کمترین فاکتور تولیدمثل را داشت. این مقادیر به ترتیب سال‏های ذکر شده با 96، 7/99 و 85/97 درصد کاهش جمعیت نسبت به جمعیت اولیه، بیشترین درصد کاهش جمعیت را نشان می‏دهد. پس از این تیمار نیز تیمار آفتاب‏دهی با فاکتورهای تولید مثل 05/0، 02/0 و035/0 و هم چنین، درصد کاهش جمعیت 95، 98 و 5/96 به ترتیب سال‏های آزمایش بهترین تأثیر را در کاهش جمعیت نماتود سیستی چغندرقند داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Solarization and Manure in Controlling Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt

نویسنده [English]

  • mehdi Nasr Esfahani
Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is the major disease of sugar beet worldwide, causing considerable damages, and even death of the plants, in the infested fields. There are several suggested methods of controls, which may have its own difficulties to be taken into consideration. To avoid the use of nematicides, and reduced the risk of chemical hazards in the environment, any sorts of nonchemical management is incorrigible. However, any method of management must be safe, large scale application and economical. Thus, in this manuscript, polyethylene sheaths were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. And, also, the incorporation of the farm yards manure was taken into consideration too. Therefore, the field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Isfahan province, Iran, to determine the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii.
Material and Methods. Transparent Polyethylene sheaths of 2microns were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. The fresh farm yards manure for 40 tons per hector for the incorporation was taken into consideration. The field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where, there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Jey and Ghahab of Isfahan, Isfahan province, Iran, for determination of the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii.
Treatments were consisted of soil solarization with transparent polyethylene sheets, fresh yard manure, integration of soil solarization with farm yard manure and untreated, control and or ckecks in a randomized block design in three replications each in an infested field conditions, in the hottest periods of the year, Jun - July. The experiments were repeated for the two years. Before, the covering of the soil, a very heavy irrigation was performed to wet the soil plots deeply, up to 60 cm. The considered factors were, the number of cyst and eggs and second larvae per gram of soils before and after the experiments. The related data on final population of cysts, number of eggs and second larvae per cyst and per gram of soil were subjected to statistical analysis. The reproduction factor and the percent reduction and or increasing population of sugar beet cyst nematode were taken into consideration in comparison to initial population of every treatment in the first and second years.
Results and Discussions. The result revealed that, among all the treatments, the combination of soil solarization along with fresh yard manure had great and significant effects on the total nematode population reduction in the first, second and in the mean of the both years. Then, followed by of both trials of soil solarization and fresh yard manure treatments alone, with no significant difference in between. Also, the least reproductive factors in first, second as well as both years were 0.04, 0.003 and 0.021, which were attributed to combination of soil solarization with fresh farm yard manure. Population levels of the nematodes showed a descending trend in this treatment. Furthermore, the second effective treatment on population density 95, 98 and 96.5 percent and reproductive reductions 0.05, 0.02 and 0.035 in the first, second and both trials was in this treatment respectively. Combined analysis of variance showed that, in both of the years, in the first and second years of study, no significant differences, with an average of 83.27 and 108.08 in both the field before the treatments application, had the highest number of population. Other treatments except for the control of these two factors did not show significant differences (P = 0.01), solarization and fresh farm yard manure in compare to checks.
Conclusions. It can be concluded from the results of these experiments that, the combination of fresh yard manure and soil solarization is having the greatest effects in reducing the sugar beet cyst nematode population in the sugar beet. Whereas, the manure and solarization alone were not statistically different from each other and both were together in one group, as compared to the combination of manure and solarization and of the control and or checks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • beet cyst nematode
  • Soil solarization
  • Farm yard manure
1- Akhiani A., Damadzadeh M., and Ahmadi A.R. 2001. Distribution and infestation rate of Heterodera schachtii in sugar beet fields of Isfahan Province. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 68 :27-29.
2- Akhiani A., Damadzadeh M., and Ahmadi A.R. 1998. Investigations on Infestation, distribution and population of Heterodera schachtii in Isfahan sugar beet fields. 1998. Proceedings of 11th Iranian Plant Protectection Congress. 23-27 Augest, 1998. Karaj. Iran.
3- Cook D. 1993. Nematode parasites of sugar beet. P: 133-169. In: Evans, K. et al.(ed). Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. CAB International.
4- Fenwick D.W. 1940. Methods for the recovery and counting of cyst of Heterodera schachtii from soil. Journal of Helminthology. 18: 155- 172.
5- Greco N., Brandonisio A., and Elia F. 1985. Control of Ditylenchus dipsaei, Heterodera carotae and Meloidogyne javanica by solarization. Review of. Horticulture. 58: 99-102.
6- Hadar E., Sofer S., Brosh S., Mordechai M., Cohn E., and Katan J. 1983. Control of clover cyst nematode on carnation. Hadassah, 63: 1698-1700.
7- Katan J. 1987. Soil solarization. P. 77-105. In: I. Chet. (ed.) Innovative Approaches to plant Disease control. John Wiley and Sons. New York.
8- Kontaxis D.G., Lofgren G.P., Thomason I.J., and Kinney H.E. 1976. Survival of the sugar beet cyst nematodes in the alimentary canal of cattle. California. Agriculture. 30:15-20.
9- Lamondia J.A., and Brodie B.B. 1968. Control of Globodera rostochiensis by solar heat. Plant Disease, 68: 474-476.
10- Luc M., Sikora R.A., and Bridge J. 1991. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. CAB International. Walling Ford, UK.
11- Nasr- Esfahani M., Karim -Poor –Fard H., and Ahmadi A.R. 2011. Studies on disinfection of the depot soil infested with sugar beet cyst nematode by soil solarization and manure. Journal of Sugar Beet. 26(2): 117-126.
12- Nasr- Esfahani M., and Ahmadi A.R. 1997. Studies on the effect of soil solarization, manure and their integration on root Knot and total nematode populations in cucumber fields. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 65(1):79-85.
13- Singh R.S., and Sitarmaiah K. 1973. Control of plant parasitic nematodes with organic amendments of soil. Final Technical Report. B. Pant University of Agriculture& Technology. Research Bulletin, 6: 289 pp.
14- Stapleton J.J., and Devay J.E. 1983. Response of phytoparasitic and free living nematodes to soil - solarization and 1, 3– dichloropropen. California Phytopathology, 73:1429- 1436.
15- Steel A.E. 1986. Nematode parasites of sugar beet. P. 33-66. In: E.D.J.E Whitney (ed.) compendium of beet Disaseae and Insects. Aps Press. Paul, Minnesota.
16- Weischer B., and Steudel W. 1972. Nematode disease of sugar beet. P. 49-65.In: J.M Webster Economic Nematology. Academic Press. London. New York.