پارامترهای جدول زندگی کفشدوزک هفت نقطه ای (L.) Coccinella septempunctata در رژیم غذایی شته گل سرخ (L.) Macrosiphum rosae

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه بوعلی سینای همدان

چکیده

کفشدوزک هفت نقطه ای، Coccinella septempunctata (L.) (Col : Coccinellidae) یکی از گونه های مهم شکارگر می باشد که در کنترل بیولوژیک آفات مختلف نقش موثری دارد. از کفشدوزک هفت نقطه ای به عنوان یک عامل کنترل بیولوژیک در شرایط گلخانه و مزرعه که دارای شرایط اقلیمی متنوع است استفاده می شود. فعالیت این شکارگر تابع دمای محیط است. به همین لحاظ در تحقیق حاضر اثر درجه حرارت ثابت روی دموگرافی این شکارگر در تغذیه از شته رز مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. پارامترهای جدول زندگی کفشدوزک هفت نقطه ای با تغذیه از شته گل سرخ Macrosiphum rosae (L.) (Hem :Aphididae) تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی و در دماهای ثابت (14، 25 و 31) درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±60 درصد و دوره نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی به طور هم زمان و در 100 تکرار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در دمای 14 درجه سلسیوس تخم گذاری وجود نداشت. نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (rm) کفشدوزک هفت نقطه ای در دمای 25 و 31 درجه سلسیوس 17/0 و 18/0، نرخ خالص تولیدمثل (R0) 55/187 و 74/76، نرخ متناهی افزایش جمعیت (λ) 18/1 و20/1 و میانگین طول دوره نسل (T) کفشدوزک 78/30 و 32/23 روز محاسبه شد. بالاترین میزان کل باروری و متوسط نرخ باروری برای دمای 25 و کمترین آن در 14 درجه سلسیوس بود. متوسط کل باروری در دمای 25 و 31 درجه سلسیوس، 46/307 و 8/125 (تخم/ ماده) محاسبه گردید. متوسط نرخ بقای کفشدوزک های بالغ با مدل ویبول در هر سه دمای مورد بررسی، برازش داده شد. بیش ترین مقدار امید به زندگی در 14 درجه سلسیوس و کم ترین مقدار آن در 31 درجه سلسیوس برآورد گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Life Table Parameters of Coccinella septempunctata (L.) Fed on Macrosiphum rosae (L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Aminafshar
  • Mohammad Khanjani
  • Babak Zahiri
Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Macrosiphum rosae is one of the most important members of the Aphididae (Hemiptera) which feeds on plant juices, colonizes underside of leaves,stems and buds. This pest is a polyphagous insect vastly found in Europe, Asia and America. Coccinella septempunctata (L.) (Col: Coccinellidae) is the successful biological control agent against aphids in under the greenhouse and field conditions. In the present study, the effects of constant temperature on the demography of C. septempunctata which feds on M. rosae was investigated.
Materials and Methods: The predators were originally collected from the field (Sorke hesar park in Tehran) in march 2012 and reared on aphids in the germinator at 25 ± 1°C, 60 % ± 5 % relative humidity and photoperiod of 16L: 8D/h to lay their eggs and then females were removed after oviposition. These eggs were used for further examination. The life table parameters of C. septempunctata were measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures (14, 25 and 31) °C, relative humidity 60 ± 5 % and photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness with 100 repetitions. The different stages of the ladybeetles were fed with 20-100 aphids from different stages of M. rosae. The developmental time of immature stages of beetles were recorded every day. When adult females emerged, an adult male was introduced into the cells to fertilize of them and after that number of offspring produced was counted daily. SAS software v 9.1 was used for data analysis. One-way ANOVA was run to determine the significant differences between demographic parameter of C. septempunctata at two constant temperatures. If there were significant differences, the Tukey's multiple tests were used for multiple comparisons (P < 0.05).
Results and Discussion: There was no ovipostion at 14 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of C. septempunctata at 25 and 31 ˚C were 0.170 and 0.186, the net reproductive rate (R0) were 187.55 and 76.74,the finit rate of increase were 1/18 and 1/20 and the mean generation time (T) of ladybird were 30.78 and 23.32 days, respectively. The lifetime oviposition and mean ovipositon rate were highest at 25 °C and lowest at 14 °C. The average total fecundities of C. septempunctata at 25 and 31 °C were 307.46 and 125.8 (eggs / femal). The average of adultʼs survival rate at three studied temperatures was analyzed by Weibull model. The maximum of life expectancy rate is at 14 °C and the minimum rate is related to 31 °C. Considering the high value of rm obtained from lifetime table of C. septempunctata in 25°C and 31°C, it can be concluded that the reproduction rate of this variety is at a high level. Among the three studied temperatures, in 31°C, the beetle had the highest intrinsic rate of natural increase and the maximum rate of fertility calculated in 25°C.
Conclusion: Considering that the rose bush is on the main vegetation in the urban area and M. rasae is rose̕ s main pest, high amount of pesticides are used for fighting this pest in the parks and in planted areas each year. In addition to removing natural enemies, these poisons cause environmental pollution and pose hazardes for the citizens who are directly exposed to this pollution. The higher values of rm in comparison to values calculated in studies of the other researchers with similar temperatures, shows the appropriate feeding value of this predator for C. septempunctata. thus, application of biological control, supporting natural enemies of pests and breeding and releasing of fruit full insects like C. septempunctata, are the alternative ways to using poisons and pesticides.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coccinella septempunctata
  • Intrinsic rate of increase (rm)
  • Life table
  • Macrosiphum rosae
  • temperature
1- Ali A., and Rizvi P.Q. 2008. Effect of varying temperature on the survival and fecundity of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed on Lipaphis erysimi, Journal of Entomology, 5: 133-137.
2- Ali A., and Rizvi P.Q. 2010. Age and stage specific life-table of Coccinella septempunctata at varying temperature, World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(3): 268-273.
3- Ashraf M., Ishtiaq M., Asif M., Mehmood T., and Naeem Awan M. 2010. A Study on laboratory rearing of lady bird beetle (Coccinella Septempunctata) to oobserve its ffecundity and Longevity on Natural and Artificial Diets' International Journal of Biology 2(1):165-173.
4- Birch L.C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase in an insect population, Journal of Animal Ecology, 17:15-26.
5- Carey J.R., and Bradlry J.W. 1982. Developmental rate, vital schedules, sex ratio and life table for Tetranychus urticae, T. turkestani and T. pasificus on cotton, Acarologia, 23: 333-345.
6- Chi H. 2013. TWOSEX-MSChart: computer program for age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (Available: http://140.120.197.173/ Ecology/prod02.htm).
7- El Habi M., Sekkat A., El Jadd L., and Boumezzough A. 2000. Biologied Hippodamia variegate Goeze (Coccinellidae) et possibilite de son 63ntensity63t contre Aphis gossypii Glov (Hom: Aphididae) sous serres de concombre, Applied Entomology, 124: 365-374.
8- Esmaeili M. 1991. Fruit Trees Important Pests. Sepehr Press. Tehran. 578 pp. (in Persian)
9- Evans E. W. 2004. Egg production in response to combined alternative foods by the predator Coccinella transversalis, Entomologia Experiments at Applicata, 34(2): 141-147.
10- Farhadi R., Allahyari H., Rasekh A., Aldaghi M., and Farhoudi F. 2012. Comparative Study of Life Table Parameters of Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae) vs. Aphis fabae (Hem.: Aphididae). Iranian journal of plant protection science (Iranian journal of Agricultural sciences). 43(2): 209-215. . (in Persian with English abstract)
11- Gurr G., and Wratten S. 2000. Biological control: measures of success, Kulwer academic publishers.
12- Hodek I., and Michaud J.P. 2008. Why is Coccinella septempunctata so successful? European Journal Entomology, 105: 1–12.
13- Hornbach D.J.D., and Childers L. 1986. Life history variation in a stream population of Musculium partumeium (Bivalvia: Pisidiidae). Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 5: 263-271.
14- Jackson H.B., Rogers C.E., Eikenbary R.D., Stark K.J., and Mc New R. W. 1974. Biology of Ephedrus plagiator on different aphid hosts and various temperatures, Environmental Entomology, 3: 618-620.
15- Katsarou I., Margaritopoulos J.T., Tsitsipis J.A., Perdikis D.C., and Zarpas K.D. 2005. Effect of temperature on development, growth and feeding of Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia convergens reared on the tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae. Biological Control, 50: 565-588.
16- Khanjani M., and Khalghani J. 2008. Principles of pests control (Insect & mites). 360pp. Ministry of jihad-e-Agriculture Press Center, Agricultural extension, Education and Research Organization Press center (In Persian).
17- Kontodaimas D.C., Milonas P.G., Stathas G.J., Papanikolaou N .E., Skourti A., and Matsinos Y.G. 2008. Life table parameters of the aphid predators Coccinella septempunctata, Ceratomegilla‌ undecimnotata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), European Journal Entomology, 105: 427–430.
18- Mehrparvar M., Mobli M., and Hatami B. 2008. Seasonal Population Fluctuations of the Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on Different Cultivars of Roses and Nastaran. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Water and Soil Science; 12 (45) :711-718. . (in Persian with English abstract)
19- Mollashahi M., Sahragard A., and Hosseini R. 2009. A comparative study on the population growth parameters of Coccinella septempunctata (Col.: Coccinellidae) and melon aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hem.: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 29 (1): 1- 12 (In Persian).
20- Pinder J. E., Wiener J. G., and Smith M.H. 1978. The Weibull distribution: a new method of summarizing survivorship data. Ecology., 59: 175–179.
21- Sattar M., Hamed M., and Sajid N. 2008. Biology of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its Predatory Potential on Cotton Aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Pakistan journal of zoology, 40(4): 239-242.
22- Skaife SH. 1979. African Insect Life, pp: 186–90. Struik Publishers (Pty) Ltd., Conelis Struik House, Cape Town 8001.
23- Southwood T.R.E., and Handerson P. A. 2000. Ecological methods, 3 rd edition, Blackwell science, 592 pp.
24- Suhail A., Sabir A. M., Hussain A., and Saeed A. 1999. Predatory Efficacy of Coccinella septempunctata L. on Cotton Aphids, Aphis gossypii Glov., Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2 (3): 603-605.
25- Xia J.Y., Van Der Werf W., and Rabbinge R. 1999. Temperature and Prey Density on Bionomics of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Feeding on Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Cotton. Environmental entomology, 28(2): 307-314.