کنترل شیمیایی علفهای هرز اسفناج(Spinacia oleracea)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شوشتر

2 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

این آزمایش در شهرستان هفتکل بهصورت طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با 15 تیمار علفکش و سه تکرار در سال زراعی 90-1389 اجرا شد. اثر علفکشها در مقادیر و زمانهای مختلف مصرف بر کنترل علفهای هرز نازک و پهنبرگ و عملکرد اسفناج موردمطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تیمارها بر تعداد علفهای هرز پهنبرگ و نازک برگ معنیدار بود. علفکشهای سنکور و پندیمتالین (قبل از رویش)، علفهای هرز پهنبرگ را بهطور معنیدار کنترل نمودند. مقادیر پایین علفکشهای پرسوئیت به میزان 7/0 لیتر و علفکش ارادیکان (5 لیتر در هکتار) از کمترین کارایی کنترل علفهای هرز پهنبرگ برخوردار بودند. در میان تیمارهای علفکش، بیشترین تعداد برگ، طول دمبرگ و عملکرد اسفناج به مصرف دو لیتر ترفلان در هکتار بهصورت پیشکاشت اختصاص داشت. بهطورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین کنترل علفهای هرز پهن و نازک برگ توسط مقادیر مختلف علفکش سنکور در هر دو روش پیش و پس از رویش بهخوبی صورت گرفت، اما این علفکش 100 درصد گیاهسوزی و خسارت اسفناج را به دنبال داشت. ترفلان دارای کمترین اثر گیاهسوزی و خسارت عملکرد در اسفناج بود. مصرف ترفلان بهصورت پیشکاشت به میزان دو لیتر در هکتار، تعداد علفهای هرز را نسبت به شاهد بدون کنترل در حدود 45 درصد کاهش و عملکرد اسفناج را 6/26 درصد افزایش داد؛ بنابراین، این علفکش برای کنترل علفهای هرز اسفناج توصیه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chemical weed control in Spinach (Spiniacia oleracea)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Modhej 1
  • H. Sabet-zangeneh 2
چکیده [English]

Introduction Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an annual plant of family Chenopodiaceae. It is cultivated in temperate and cold regions in Khouzestan in autumn and winter. Weeds are the main problems that limit the production of vegetables. Competition ability of spinach against weeds is very low and weeds cause the loss of quality and quantity in this plant. Weeds reduce germination and establishment and growth of spinach. Weed management in spinach should be done at the beginning of the season. Hand weeding is the best way to control weeds spinach, although due to the high cost it is not cost effective, but is steel common in large areas. Weed control spinach, using chemical methods, the number of weeds are kept below the threshold of economic damage.
Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 15 treatments and three replications. Treatments included pre-plant application of EPTC at 5 and 6 lit ha-1, pre-plant application of Trifluralin at 2 lit ha-1, pre-plant and pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin at 3 lit ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Meteribouzin at 300 g ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Meteribouzin at 400 g ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Imazethapyr at 0.7 lit ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Imazethapyr at 1 lit ha-1, weedy and weed free checks. Each plot the size of 2.5 × 2 meters and 10 row cultivation with distances between rows of 15 cm and the distance between the plants 25 cm and the sowing depth was 3 cm. The herbicide treatments were applied to the back sprayer with Flat fan nozzle with volume of consumption of 240 lit ha-1 solution. The final harvest was about 50 days after emergence. Sampling of weeds 10 days before harvest was performed with using quadrate 0.5 ×0.5.
Results Discussion Important broad-leaf and narrow leaf weeds observed in the field, included field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), Malva (Malva spp.), Chamomile (Anthemis altissima), Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), canary grass (Phalaris minor), mouse barley (Hordeum morinum) and Japan brome (Bromus japonicus), respectively. The results of variance analysis showed that the effects of treatments on the number of broadleaf and weed narrow leaves were significant. Meteribouzin and Pendimethalin herbicides (pre-emergence), had better control on broadleaf weed than other herbicides. Low amounts of herbicides EPTC (5 lit ha-1) and imazethapyr (0.7 lit ha-1) were the least effective broadleaf weed control. Trifluralin herbicide reduced approximately 44% broadleaf weed density compared to control plots without control. The minimum weight of broadleaf weed at all doses studied allocated to herbicides Pendimethalin and Meteribouzin. Most of reducing the number narrow leaves was belonged to Meteribouzin and Pendimethalin herbicides as pre-emergence with doses of 300 g and 3 lit ha-1, respectively. The effect of treatments on petiole length, number of leaves per plant and the spinach fresh yield was significant in 1% probability level. Meteribouzin damage in spinach was 100%. It was reported that the half-life in soil herbicide Meteribouzin is about 30-60 days. It seems spinach a high sensitivity to the herbicide and relatively long survival in the soil that causing damage spinach was perfect, while maximum weed control amounts in all methods of used allocated to this herbicide. Number of leaves per plant trait was that less affected by weed interference. Both components of leaves per plant (r= 69.0**) and petiole length (r= 87.0**) showed significant positive correlation with the spinach fresh yield. The highest spinach yield was obtained in Trifluralin herbicide after treatments control. The difference between spinach yield in Trifluralin and control treatments was not significant.
Conclusion: In general, the results showed that the broad and narrow leaf weeds were well controlled by different rates of pre-emergence and post-emergence application of meteribouzin, but this was followed by severe damage in spinach. Trifluralin had the lowest damage effect on spinach leaves. Pre-plant application of trifluralin at 2 lit ha-1 reduced approximately 45% of weed density and increased yield of spinach by 26.6% compared with control treatment. Therefore, this herbicide was recommended to use for weed control in spinach fields. According to the results it seems that the use of herbicide meteribouzin not advisable in spinach whereas causing damage, but due to weed well control is recommended increased resistance spinach to the herbicide through breeding programs. However, it should be noted that spinach leaves are consumed fresh, therefore, investigating the presence of herbicide residues in plant is necessary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Herbicides
  • Narrow and broad leaf weeds
Bedmar F., Costa J. L., Suero E., and Gimenez D. 2004. Transport of atrazin and metribuzin in three soils of humid pampas of Argentina. Weed Technology. 18: 1-8.
2-Curran B., and Foster R. 2002. Weed Control Manual 2002. Meister Publishing Company. 575p.
3-Fennimore S.A., Smith R.F., and McGiffen Jr M.E. 2001. Weed management in fresh market spinach with S-metolachlor. Weed Technology. 15: 511-516.
4-Henderson C.W.L., Webber M.J. 1993. Phytotoxicity to transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa) of three pre-emergence herbicides: metolachlor, pendimethalin, and propachlor. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 33: 373–380.
5-Hesami E. 2013. Evaluation of Weed Control in Tomato. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 13 (6): 737-739.
6-Johnson A.W., Young J. R., Threadgill E. D., Dowler C. C., and Sumner D. R.
1986. Chemigation for crop production management. Plant Disease 70: 998-1004.
7-Keshtkar A., Ali Zadeh., and Abasi F. 2009. Herbicide application (EPTC + dichloro acetamide) by method irrigation- poison and compare it to Common method of used in control weeds in corn (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 41(1): 1-10. (in Persian with English abstract)
8-Kropff M., and Vanlaar, H.H. 1993. Modeling crop-weed interaction CAB international Wallingford. UK. 178-221.
9-Kropff M.J., and Lotz L.A.P. 1992. System approach to quantify crop- weed interaction and their application to weed management. Agricultural Systems. 40: 256-282
10-Lanini W.T., and LeStrange M. 1991. Low-Input Management of Weeds in Vegetable Fields. California Agriculture. 45:11-13.
11- Mohtasebi Reza., Baghestani M.A., Zand E., and Sarhadi M. 2011. Investigation of dose and time application of Metribuzin on wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars yield and weeds control in Varamin. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi). 92: 79-84 (in Persian with English abstract)
12-Mousavi M. 2001. Integrated weed management: principles and practices. Miaad Press. (in Persian)
13- Mousavi M.R. 2010. Weeds Control. (Author) Publication of the Border knowledge. 490p. (in Persian)
14- Palou, A.T., Ranzenbergery A. C., and Larios C. Z. 2008. Management of herbicide-resistant weed populations. FAO Publishing.
15- Pauzesh Shirazi M., Rakhshandero M. 2008. Studying the effects of irrigation regimes, plant density and cultivation method on spinach yield. Water and Soil Science. 22 (2): 187-198 (in Persian with English abstract)
16- Rahman U.H., Khattak A.M., Sadiq M., Ullah K., Javeria S., and Ullah I. 2012. Influence of different weed management practices on yield of garlic crop. Sarhad Journal of Agricultural. 28 (2):213-218
17- Rahmani S., Baghestani M.A., Mehrpooyan M., and Daneshyan J. 2011. Applying five herbicides and plastic mulch on dry weight and densities of weeds and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The first national conference on discussions modern agriculture. Saveh. Iran. (in Persian with English abstract)
18- Rais Mohammadi E., Alizadeh H., Baghestani Meybodi M.A., and Arab M. 2011. Influence of different herbicide application methods on weed control of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) nursery. Crops Improvement. 13(1): 43-54(in Persian with English abstract)
19- Rashed Mohsel M.H., Najafi H and Akbar Zadeh M.H. 2001. Biology and Weed control. Ferdosi University of Mashhad. 404p. (in Persian)
20- Shikhi Gorjan A.M., Najafi H, Abasi F., Saber Far F., and Reshid M. 2009. Guide to Pesticides in Iran. Book Publishing capital. 238p. (in Persian)
21-Skumriov V., Boiadjiov H. 1995. Investigation of some herbicides for control of weeds in winter garlic production. Rasteniev’’dni-Nanki 32, 242–244.
22-Smith MAK. 2004. Pendimethalin phytotoxicity and seedling weed control in Indian spinach (Basella alba L.). Crop Protection 23: 201–204
23-Wallace R.W., Phillips A. L., Hodges J. C. 2007. Processing Spinach Response to Selected Herbicides for Weed Control, Crop Injury, and Yield. Weed Technology 21(3):714-718.
24- Yazdanparast A. 1993. Minerals, fruits and vegetables. Journal of livestock, fruits. Gardening specific numbers. 41-43.