توزیع تاج پوشش سویا (Glycine max L.)، توق (Xanthium strumarium L. ) و تاج خروس (Amranthus retroflexus) در شرایط مختلف تداخل

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی


1 دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشگاه تهران

4 موسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور


به منظور بررسی تاج پوشش سویا و علف‌های‌هرز توق و تاج خروس در شرایط رقابتی (در شرایط رقابت کامل و یا کاربرد علف‌کش ایمازتاپیر) این آزمایش در سال 1386 و 1387در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. دز علف‌کش در2 سطح (صفر و 35 گرم ماده موثره در هکتار) و تداخل علف‌هرز توق (در تراکم‌های صفر، 2، 4 و 8 بوته در متر ردیف) و تاج خروس (در تراکم‌های صفر، 4، 8 و12 بوته در متر ردیف) ارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که ساختار تاج پوشش سویا در شرایط رقابت با علف‌های‌هرز با تک کشتی این گیاه متفاوت است. در تک کشتی سویا، برگ‌ها در لایه‌های مختلف تاج پوشش (به‌جز لایه صفر تا 30 سانتی‌متر) پراکنش یکنواختی داشت. با افزایش تراکم علف‌های‌هرز، در شرایط عدم کاربرد علف‌کش، بخش عمده‌ای از سطح برگ سویا در لایه‌های فوقانی قرار گرفت و حتی در رقابت با تاج خروس، برگ‌های لایه‌های تحتانی (صفر تا 60 سانتی‌متر) حذف شد. بوته‌های سویا در تیمار کاربرد علف‌کش، در رقابت با توق یا تاج خروس توزیع سطح برگ مشابه با حالت تک کشتی نشان دادند. توق در تراکم‌های 2 و 4 بوته در متر ردیف، سطح برگ خود را در تمام لایه‌ها حفظ کرد که نشانگر تحمل آن به سایه است. در مقابل، تاج خروس در لایه‌های پایین دارای سطح برگ کم و یا فاقد سطح برگ بود. بررسی تغییرات عملکرد دانه در تراکم‌های مختلف توق یا تاج خروس نیز نشان داد که این صفت بیش‌تر تحت تأثیر رقابت با توق قرار گرفت که حاکی از قدرت رقابتی بالای این گیاه نسبت به تاج خروس است؛ لذا در مدیریت علف‌های‌هرز کنترل آن باید در اولویت قرار گیرد. هم‌چنین در صورت کاربرد دز کاهش یافته علفکش ایمازاتاپیر علف‌های‌هرز مذکور قادر به رقابت مؤثر با سویا نبودند. بنابراین کاربرد مقدار کاهش یافته این علفکش در شرایط مشابه توصیه می‌شود.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Canopy Architecture of Soybean (Glycine max), Xanthium strumarium and Amaranthus retroflexus Under Different Interference Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza yousefi 1
  • M. Rastgoo 2
  • H. Alizadeh 3
  • M. A. Baghestani 4
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 University of Tehran
4 Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of Xanthium strumarium or Amaranthus retroflexus competition under unsprayed and sprayed (half the recommended rate of imazethapyr) on canopy architecture of weed and soybean, field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of University of Tehran, during the growing season of 2007 and 2008. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Two herbicide dose (0 and 35g a.i ha-1) and X. strumarium (at density of 0, 2, 4, 8 plants m-1 of row) or A. retroflexus (at density of 0, 4, 8, 12 plants m-1 of row) interference were studied. Different canopy architecture was found for soybean in monocultures compared to interspecific competition. In monocultures, with exception for lower layer (0-30 cm), soybean plant had similar pattern for LA distribution within the canopy. By increasing density in untreated plot, soybean plants developed a large proportion of their leaf area in the upper portion of the canopy. soybean plants loss their lower (0-60 cm) leaves in competition with the highest densities A. retroflexus. However, canopy architecture and leaf area distribution of soybeans grown with X. strumarium or A. retroflexus was similar to soybeans grown alone in the reduced rate of herbicide. At the density of 2 and 4 plants m-1 of row, X. strumarium had leaves in all layers of the canopy and was able to develop and maintain its lower canopy leaves under the shade. In contrast, A. retroflexus retained few to no leaves within the lower layers of the canopy. It seems that more competitive ability of X. strumarium compared to A. retroflexus was mainly due to the growth habit of this plant, which has its leaves distributed evenly within the canopy. Result also showed that crop yield affected more by X. strumarium compared with A. retroflexus. Our results suggested that on the basis of X. strumarium superior competitive ability, it should be given a greater priority for control than A. retroflexus in soybean. The half rate of herbicide significantly decreased the competitive ability of X. strumarium and A. retroflexus indicating that, in soybean, application of this rate is recommended in similar condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Leaf area distribution
  • Reduced rate of herbicide
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