نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی
1 گروه فن آوری و مدیریت تولید، پژوهشکده گل و گیاهان زینتی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، محلات، ایران
2 گروه فن آوری و مدیریت تولید، پژوهشکده گل و گیاهان زینتی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، اموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران، محلات
عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to the process of quality control of agricultural products and accurate assessment of pesticide residues in products exported to destination countries, the application of biological control has become essential. In order to use biological control, biological agents must either be purchased from countries with the technology of mass production of natural enemies, or to meet the needs of the country, the technology of mass production of predators and parasitoids must be developed. In the case of mass rearing of predatory mites, which are mostly used to control spider mite, the problem of mass prodaction has been partially resolved and some companies are rearing, but in mass rearing of these predators, destructive effects on non-target natural enemies and mold growth on the rearing media of predatory mites are problematic. The predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) is one of the most common biological agents for control of two-spotted mite, whitefly and onion thrips in greenhouses, which is widely used in greenhouse crops worldwide. The importance of this study is to facilitate the mass production of this predatory mite. In mass production of this predator, a medium with eggs, nymphal stages, and mature mites of Carpoglyphus lactis Linnaeus was used at 25 ± 1 ° C, 70 ± 5% RH and L: D 16: 8. One of the most important limitation in the production of this predator is infection with some fungi such as Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus spp,and Penicillium spp., which caused the deterioration of the medium and consequently the death of dried fruit mites and predatory mites in the production environment.
Materials and Methods
To investigate the efficacy of five componds on fungal control, an experiment was achieved with twelve treatments in a completely randomized design in three replication. From the culture medium (800 g of elm flour, 195 g of wheat bran and 5 g of palm pollen) plus 1g/kg of compounds: tebuconazole, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), Caliban® (potassium bicarbonate), Chitosan®, and carbendazim and in treatments where two compounds were mixed, 0.5 g/kg was used.
Results and Discussion
Analysis of variance of the treatments showed that the highest reduction in fungal infection was observed in treatments 1(tebuconazol®), 3(Caliban®) and 6(Trichocara®) with 66.33, 63.25 and 28.62% in compared to the control, respectively. Also, the highest increase in population of C. lactis as prey mites were in treatments 1(tebuconazol®), 10(Chitosan = tebuconazol) and 6(Trichocara®) with 80.22, 65.75 and 65.15%, respectively. Results were showed that highest increase in predatory mite (A. swirskii) population were in treatments 1(tebuconazol®) and 6(Trichocara®) with 76.33 and 72.66 percent, respectively, in the first group, and treatments 3(Caliban®), 2(soda) and 10(Chitosan + tebuconazol) with 56.33, 54.66 and 53.66 percent, respectively, in the second group.
The predator mite population of A. swirskii is able to complete its growth on growth substrates with prey mite C. lactis. This predator has a high potential in feeding on dry fruit mite C. lactis. Therefore, this bait can be a suitable food for the mass production of A. swirskii mites. The most important problem in rearing large numbers of predatory mites is saprophytic fungi, which cause the destruction of a large number of predatory mites and their prey due to their sudden expansion. In general, according to the results of our study, the use of tebuconazole fungicide at a rate of one per thousand of commercial material and also the biological compound of Trichocara® (Trichoderma virens) with a concentration of one per thousand are recommended to control saprophytic fungi in mass production environment of predatory mite,A. swirskii,. Each of these two compounds has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, tabuconazole is more available, but Trichocara® is a biological compound and is more environmentally safe; however, this substance darkens the color of the culture medium a little because Trichoderma virens also grows in this medium. In terms of economics and reducing the cost of mass production of predatory mites, baking soda and Caliban®, which were included in the second group of effective treatments, have economic value and are much cheaper than other compounds and can reduce the severity of fungal infections with minimal cost. Among the different compounds, the use of tebuconazole fungicide at the rate of one gram per thousand grams of substrate had the best effect in controlling fungi. Although compounds such as sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate were less effective, they are suitable options due to their non-toxicity.
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