نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی
1 بخش تحقیقات جانورشناسی کشاورزی، موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران، تهران
2 گروه فنآوری و مدیریت تولید، پژوهشکده گل و گیاهان زینتی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران، محلات
3 بخش گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران، اصفهان
عنوان مقاله [English]
The ornamental plants are sold according their beauty. Different mite species imposing damages on various ornamental plant parts. At the moment total mite pest species in greenhouse commercial ornamental plant productions in the world exceed to 31 species from 15 genera and 6 mite families (Tetranychidae, 7 species, Tenuipalpidae, 4 species, Eriophyoidea, 13 species, Tarsonemidae, 2 species, Acaridae, 5 species) respectively. Among Acarina mites and other arthropods pest species, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Two spotted spider mite) is the most economical pest in the greenhouses in Iran and in the world. This mite pest due to possess shorter time of generation, number of generations through host plant existed, higher daily and total fecundity, higher adaptation range of temperature and humidity during roses plant cultivation time, enhanced this mite to become the first arthropods receiving higher resistance to different pesticides group under greenhouse conditions. Biological control achievement of this mite pest by rotational natural enemies like Phytoseiulus persimilis A. H. received for few percent only under special circumstances in developing countries. But control major of this mite still depended to pesticides effects and how and when to apply. Economical rose plants generally harvested for two or three years in greenhouse condition while enhancing longer period activities for two spotted spider mite population with constant noticeable damages. Substitution new chemical group of acaricide at short period of time against this mite pest under greenhouses reported effective by concerned researchers under greenhouse conditions. Most pesticides effects in agricultural crops can enter and kill the mite as stomach or contact poisons and can classified them into organic and inorganic pesticides. Inorganic pesticides do not contain the element of carbon but include arsenic, mercury, zinc, sulfured, boron or fluorine. While botanical pesticides, positives relatively with high LD50 values to mammals, they usually are considered safe to human. Dependency to pesticides application against spider mite population although will not eliminated them in agricultural crop productions, they should not automatically be given the higher priority especially under greenhouses. Tetranychus urticae causes longer period damages and faster resistance to various group of pesticides among cut rose’s pests in the greenhouses in Iran and elsewhere in the world. Spray new acaricidal compounds in rotation, is one of the control measures which to keep out further mite resistance to the acaricidal application.
Materials and Methods
In this concerned, an investigation carried out to evaluate effects of different doses of flufenzin 20% SC (0.4 and 0.5 ml/lit) and Dayabon-3 (8 and 10 ml/lit doses) a botanical pesticide manufactured in Iran in comparison with effects of 0.75 ml/lit of abamectin, 0.5 ml/lit of hexythiazox 10% EC and etoxazole 10% EC of registered acaricides against T. urticae mobile stages on cut roses in greenhouses of Tehran, Mahalat and Esfahan regions during period of 2014-2015 respectively. The completely randomized design method with three replications were used. In each replicated, 10 meters roses plants cultivated in the plastic pots were used. Time of treatment’s done at weekly sampling from all roses’ plants in different treatments including controlled treatment and total 200 leaves randomly sampled from various rose plant parts and carried out into polyethylene bag into laboratory to examine mobile stages of spider mite under stereomicroscope. Alive mite stages counted under rose leaf side and when at least 3 active spider mite stages observed with 30% rose leaves infested by mite, different treatments applied at early morning hours. Water spray also used in controlled treatment. Effects of each treatment determined through random 30 leaves collected from bent and vertical shoots and number alive mites were counted under rose leaf side and registered for each treatment. Sampling period followed at one day before treatment and 3, 7, 14 days after treatments sprayed respectively. Raw collected data for each treatment through Aboutte formula converted into mortality%. Analysis of variance on mean of mortality% done with the help of SAS software and those treatment grouped according Duncan multiple range test method.
Results and Discussion
Mite mortality% caused by 0.5ml/l of flufenzin and 10 ml/l of Dayabon-3 found varied from 3rd to 14th days after treatment in Tehran with decreasing effects from 82.89% to 56.35%, 82.64% to 49.65% for both treatments respectively. While effects of these two treatments in Esfahan recorded from 78.61% to 82.93%, and 71.04% to 74.27% with increasing effects against rose spider mite population. Comparing effects of these two treatments in Mahalat however remained almost at constant and mite mortality% fluctuated from 68.8% to 70%, 62.97% to 66% during sampling period respectively.
Spraying higher doses of these two pesticides at lower mean of population and % of mite infested rose leaves and implementing different acaricidal compounds in rotation, will provide higher mite control as well as protect further risk of spider mite resistance to the pesticides in rose greenhouses.
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