تأثیر دو ماده افزودنی Scorch و п Torpedo در کارایی حشره‌کش‌های ایمیداکلوپراید و فلونیکامید روی شته جالیز(Aphis gossypii Glover) در گلخانه خیار

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی تهران، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

شته جالیز (پنبه) (Aphis gossypii Glover) یکی از مهم­ترین آفات می باشد. مواد افزودنی (ادجوانت­ها) باعث بهبود و افزایش کارایی آفت‌کش­ها شده و در کاهش مصرف آنها می­توانند تاثیر داشته باشند. در تحقیق حاضر، تاثیر دو ماده افزودنی به نام­های Scorch و Torpedo п بر کارایی حشره­کش­های ایمیداکلوپراید و فلونیکامید روی شته جالیز در دو گلخانه‌ خیار (کرج و ارومیه) در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در 15 تیمار و سه تکرار انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری یک روز قبل از سمپاشی و سه، هفت و14 روز پس از سم‌پاشی انجام شد. تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده ها نشان داد که اثر متقابل تیمار در مکان معنی‌دار نیست. به عبارت دیگر تیمارهای آزمایشی در مکان‌های مختلف، پاسخ‌های مشابهی را نشان داده‌اند. بنابراین داده‌ها بر این اساس و بدون در نظر گرفتن مکان‌های مورد مطالعه (ارومیه و کرج) تجزیه آماری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که هر دو ادجوانت قادرند کارائی ایمیداکلوپراید و فلونیکامید را افزایش دهند. مثلا در بازه زمانی سه روز پس از سمپاشی، کارائی تیمار ایمیداکلوپراید به تنهائی با کارائی 47/81 درصد در گروه آماری bc قرار گرفت اما تیمارهای "ایمیداکلوپراید+تورپدو" و "ایمیداکلوپراید+اسکورچ" به‌ترتیب 60/92 و 43/93 درصد کارائی (گروه آماری a) نشان دادند. با اضافه شدن ادجوانت تورپدو به ایمیداکلوپراید، وقتی که با کاهش دز حشره‌کش همراه شد، کارائی ایمیداکلوپراید به شدت کاهش یافت. بنابراین اضافه کردن تورپدو همراه با کاهش دز ایمیداکلوپراید توصیه نمی­شود. در عوض اضافه شدن اسکورچ، وقتی با کاهش دز ایمیداکلوپراید همراه شد، توانست کارائی ایمیداکلوپراید را در حد بالائی حفظ کند. علاوه بر آن، اضافه شدن هر دو ادجوانت به فلونیکامید، وقتی با کاهش دز این حشره‌کش همراه شد، باعث شد که کارائی در حد بالائی حفظ شود. در مجموع نتایج تحقیق حاضر می­تواند هم از نظر اقتصادی و هم از نظر زیست محیطی حائز اهمیت باشد چون طبق نتایج گرفته شده، می­توان مقدار مصرف ایمیداکلوپراید و فلونیکامید را تا 20 درصد کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Two Adjuvants (Scorch and Torpedo п) on Efficacy of Imidacloprid and Flonicamid to Control the Aphis gossypii Aphid in Greenhouse Cucumber

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Mosallanejad 1
  • M. Forouzan 2
  • L. Ebrahimi 1
1 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Plant Protection Research Department, West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is one the most important economic vegetables crop cultivated in Iran and many countries of the world. The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests of Cucurbitaceae plants in greenhouses and open fields. A. gossypii can cause severe damage in commercial fields. The honeydew that aphid excretes decreases the photosynthetic activity of plants and contaminates fruit, resulting in severely reduced quality. Moreover, A. gossypii can transmit more than 80 type of viral diseases that can cause substantially greater losses than the damage from direct feeding of the insect. The focus of the control methods against this pest in our country is the use of insecticides. Additionally, A. gossypii has developed different levels of resistance to many insecticides. Agricultural adjuvants can improve the efficacy of pesticides and can be effective in reduction of pesticides use. In the current research, the effects of two adjuvants (Scorch and Torpedo п) on efficiency of imidacloprid (SC35%) and flonicamid (WG50%) to control this aphid were investigated on cucumber in greenhouse. These two insecticides have systemic property doing their job after leaf penetration. It is known that the leaf penetration step is very determinative for systemic pesticides. Besides, Scorch and Torpedo п are multi-functional adjuvant, showing penetration, wetting, adhesion and spreading properties.  
Materials and Methods: The project was performed based on a completely randomized design with 15 treatments and 3 replicates. The efficacy in the sampling units was recorded at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The treatments were: 1) imidacloprid (recommended dose); 2) imidacloprid+Scorch; 3) imidacloprid+Torpedo п; 4) imidacloprid (10% reduction of dosage)+Scorch; 5) imidacloprid (20% reduction of dosage)+Scorch; 6) imidacloprid (10% reduction of dosage)+Torpedo п; 7) imidacloprid (20% reduction of dosage)+Torpedo п. Flonicamid was replaced by imidacloprid in the treatments 8 to 14. The control treatment (No. 15) was sprayed by water only. The efficacy was calculated using the Henderson and Tilton formula. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS software (ver. 9.1). One row was considered as the distance between the experimental units. Two rows on either side of the greenhouse were also considered as margins.
Results and Discussion: The combine analysis of variance showed that interaction of treatment × place was not significant, meaning that the experimental treatments had the same respond in different locations. Therefore, the data were statistically analyzed based on this, without considering the locations (Urmia and Karaj). The results showed that both adjuvants were able to improve the efficacy of imidacloprid and flonicamid, as it was confirmed at all times after spraying. For example, three days after spraying, the efficacy of imidacloprid alone was estimated at 81.47%, while "imidacloprid + Torpedo" and "imidacloprid + Scorch" were estimated at 92.60% at 93.43%, respectively. Similarly, seven days after spraying flonicamid alone showed 87% efficiency, whereas the treatment of "flonicamid+Torpedo" and "flonicamid+Scorch" exhibited 94.34% and 95.31%, respectively. When Torpedo п was used in combination of reduced doses of imidacloprid, the efficacy was severely reduced. Thus, the addition of Torpedo п is not recommended with reduced doses of imidacloprid. Instead, adding the Scorch when reducing the imidacloprid dosage, the efficacy was remained as high. For example, three days after spraying, "Imidacloprid with 10% dose reduction + Scorch" and "Imidacloprid with 20% dose reduction + Scorch" treatments were 93.65% and 94.23% efficacy, respectively. Besides, by reducing the flonicamid dosage and adding both adjuvant, the efficiency was as high as to the treatment using the recommended dosage. For example, 14 days after spraying, flonicamid with 10% dose reduction + Scorch and flonicamid with 20% dose reduction+ Scorch showed 93.94% and 93.48% efficacy, respectively. Our results can be important from both economic and environmental point of view, as the obtained results indicated that imidacloprid and flonicamid dosage can be reduced by 20%. However, it should be keep in mind that other factors, such as the price of adjuvants, are involved in their practical and field use by farmers, which should be taken into account. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adjuvants
  • Aphis gossypii
  • Efficacy
  • Imidacloprid
  • flonicamid
  1. Abd-Allah A.A.A. 2011. Influence of some adjuvants on efficacy of certain insecticides against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (LIND.) infesting onion and garlic plants. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology 2: 169-178.
  2. Abdelgaleil S.A., Abdel-Aziz N.F., Sammour E.A., El-Bakry A.M., and Kassem S.M. 2015. Use of tank-mix adjuvants to improve effectiveness and persistence of chlorpyrifos and cyhalothrin formulations. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 17(6): 1539-1549.
  3. Acheampong S., and Stark J.D. 2004. Effects of the agricultural adjuvant Sylgard 309 and the insecticide pymetrozine on demographic parameters of the aphid parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae. Biological Control 31(2): 133-137.
  4. Ahmadi K., Ebadzadeh H., Hatami F., Hosseinpour R., and Abdshah H. Iran agricultural statistics of 2019. Ministry of Agricultural Jihad. 163 pp.
  5. Aioub A.A., Omar A.E., and El-Sobki A.E.A. 2015. Filed evaluation of thiamethoxam insecticide and its mixtures with certain adjuvants in controlling leguminous aphid, Aphis craccivora (koch) and their residues in plants and soil. Zagazig Journal of Plant Protection Research 42(4): 835-841.
  6. Barbosa P.R., Michaud J.P., Bain C.L., and Torres J.B. 2017. Toxicity of three aphicides to the generalist predators Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Ecotoxicology 26(5): 589-599.
  7. Betana M.D.M.A., Hussein and EL-Kadi A.M.A. 2004. Influence of some adjuvants on physico-chemical properties, effectiveness, and pesticides formulations. Journal of Agricultural Science, Mansoura 29(4): 2105-2116.
  8. Chen H., Zhang Y., Zhang H., and Ding W. 2014. Synergistic effect of imidacloprid combined with synergistic agents (Beichuang, Jiexiaoli) on Myzus persicae. International Journal of Pest Management 60(3): 201-207.
  9. Colomer I., Aguado P., Medina P., Heredia R.M., Fereres A., Belda J.E., and Viñuela E. 2011. Field trial measuring the compatibility of methoxyfenozide and flonicamid with Orius laevigatus Fieber and Amblyseius swirskii in a commercial pepper greenhouse. Pest Management Science 67(10): 1237-1244.
  10. Eugene Brady U., Wayne Berisford C., Thomas Hall L., and Joseph Hamilton S. 1980. Efficacy and persistence of chorpyrifos, chorpyrifos-methyl, and lindane for preventive and remedial control of the southern pine beetle. Journal of Economic Entomology 73(5): 639-641.
  11. Foy C.L. 1996. Adjuvants–current trends and technology. Pesticide formulation and adjuvant technology, Eds. C. L. Foy and D. W. Pritchard, CRC Press. pp. 323–352.
  12. Gaskin R.E., Horgan D.B., and Manktelow D.W. 2010. Adjuvant effects on the retention and uptake of spirotetramat insecticide sprays on kiwifruit. New Zealand Plant Protection 63: 60-65.
  13. Gatarayiha M.C., Laing M.D., and Miller R.M. 2010. Effects of adjuvant and conidial concentration on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. Experimental and Applied Acarology 50(3): 217-29.
  14. Gautam B.K., Little B.A., Taylor M.D., Jacobs J.L., Lovett W.E., Holland R.M., and Sial A.A. 2016. Effect of simulated rainfall on the effectiveness of insecticides against spotted wing drosophila in blueberries. Crop Protection 81: 122-128.
  15. Green J.M., and Beestman G.B. 2007. Recently patented and commercialized formulation and adjuvant technology. Crop Protection 26(3): 320-327.
  16. He L., Ding L., Zhang P., Li B., Mu W., and Liu F. 2021. Impact of the equilibrium relationship between deposition and wettability behavior to the high‐efficiency utilization of pesticides. Pest Management Science 77: 2485–2493.
  17. Henderson CF., and Tilton EW. 1955. Tests with Acaricides against the brown wheat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology 48: 157–161.
  18. Holloway P.J. 1998. Improving agrochemical performance: possible mechanisms for adjuvancy. Chemistry and technology of agrochemical formulations, Ed. Knowles D. A., Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 232-263.
  19. Houbraken M., Senaeve D., Fevery D., and Spanoghe P. 2015. Influence of adjuvants on the dissipation of fenpropimorph, pyrimethanil, chlorpyrifos and lindane on the solid/gas interface. Chemosphere 138: 357-363.
  20. Jeschke P., Nauen R., and Beck M.E. 2013. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: a milestone for modern crop protection. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 52(36): 9464-9485.
  21. Kierzek R., Wachowiak M., Krawczyk R., and Ratajkiewicz H. 2014. Effect of spray nozzle type and adjuvants on herbicide activity in maize. Problems of Agricultural Engineering Journal 2(84): 29-39. (In Polish with English abstract)
  22. Kodandaram M.H., Kumar Y.B., Banerjee K., Hingmire S., Rai A.B., and Singh B. 2017. Field bioefficacy, phytotoxicity and residue dynamics of the insecticide flonicamid (50 WG) in okra (Abelmoschus esculenta (L) Moench). Crop Protection 94: 13-19.
  23. Kumar V., Jindal V., Kataria S.K., and Pathania M. 2019. Activity of novel insecticides against different life stages of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89(10): 1599-1603.
  24. Kunjwal N., and Srivastava R.M. 2018. Insect pests of vegetables. Pests and their Management, Ed. Omkar (2018) Springer, Singapore. pp. 163-221.
  25. Larson L.L. 1997. Effects of adjuvants on the activity of Tracer™ 480SC on cotton in the laboratory, 1996. Arthropod Management Tests 22: 415-416.
  26. Liu T.X., and Stansly P.A. 2000. Insecticidal activity of surfactants and oils against silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) nymphs (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on collards and tomato. Pest Management Science 56(10): 861–866.
  27. Mayer D.F., and Lunden J.D. 1994. Effects of the adjuvant Sylgard 309 on the hazard of selected insecticides to honey bees. Bee Science 3(3): 135-138.
  28. McKenna C., Gaskin R., Horgan D., Dobson S., and Jia Y. 2013. Efficacy of a postharvest spirotetramat spray against armoured scale insects on kiwifruit vines. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 41(3): 105-116.
  29. Meng Y., Lan Y., Mei G., Guo Y., Song J., and Wang Z. 2018. Effect of aerial spray adjuvant applying on the efficiency of small unmanned aerial vehicle for wheat aphids control. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 11(5): 46-53.
  30. Morita M., Ueda T., Yoneda T., Koyanagi T., and Haga T. 2007. Flonicamid, a novel insecticide with a rapid inhibitory effect on aphid feeding. Pest Management Science 63(10): 969-973.
  31. Morita M., Yoneda T., and Akiyoshi N. 2014. Research and development of a novel insecticide, flonicamid. Journal of Pesticide Science 39(3): 179-180.
  32. Noorbaksh S. 2019. List of important pests, diseases and weeds of major agricultural products, pesticides and recommended methods to control them. PPO publication. 197 pp.
  33. Pacanoski Z. 2015. Herbicides and adjuvants. Intech Open Science 125-147.
  34. Palumbo J.C. 2009. Influence of adjuvants and Movento spray timing on aphid contamination in head lettuce. Arthropod Management Tests, ESA, Vol 34, E34.
  35. Palumbo J.C. 2010. Efficacy of Movento and adjuvant combinations for pre-harvest control of lettuce aphid in romaine lettuce. Arthropod Management Tests, ESA, Vol 35, E33.
  36. Palumbo J.C. 2011. Influence of adjuvants and spray timing of Movento on aphid contamination and crop injury in Baby Spinach. Plant Health Progress 12(1): 10.
  37. Ratajkiewicz H., Kierze R., Raczkowski M., Kulas A.H., Łacka A., Wójtowicz A., and Wachowiak M. 2016. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 14(3): 23-31.
  38. Ratajkiewicz , Kierzek R., Raczkowski M., Kulas A.H., Łacka A., and Szulc T. 2018. The effect of coarse-droplet spraying with double flat fan air induction nozzle and spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 16(1): 22-32.
  39. Roditakis E., Fytrou N., Staurakaki M., Vontas J., and Tsagkarakou A. 2014. Activity of flonicamid on the sweet potato whitely Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies. Pest Management Science 70(10): 1460-1467.
  40. Sétamou M., Rodriguez D., Saldana R., Schwarzlose G., Palrang D., and Nelson S.D. 2010. Efficacy and uptake of soil-applied imidacloprid in the control of Asian citrus psyllid and a citrus leaf miner, two foliar-feeding citrus pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 103(5): 1711-1719.
  41. Seyedebrahimi S.S., Talebi Jahromi K., Imani S., Hosseininaveh V., and Hesami S. 2016. Resistance to imidacloprid in different field populations of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.: Aphididae) in South of Iran. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research 48: 6-10.
  42. Srinivasan R., Hoy M.A., Singh R and Rogers M.E. 2008. Laboratory and field evaluations of Silwet L-77 and kinetic alone and in combination with imidacloprid and abamectin for the management of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Florida Entomologist 91(1): 87-100.
  43. Tariq K., Ali R., Butt Z. A., Ali A., Naz G., Anwar Z., and Shah J.A. 2016. Comparative efficacy of different insecticides alone and along with adjuvant against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in Multan, Pakistan. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 16: 1424-30.
  44. Tomizawa M., and Casida E. 2005. Neonicotinoid insecticide toxicology: mechanisms of selective action. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 45: 247-268.
  45. Van Emden H.F., and Harrington R. 2017. Aphids as crop pests, second edition. CABI. 450 pp.
  46. Wang L., Zhang S., Luo J.Y., Wang C.Y., Lv L.M., Zhu X.Z., and Cui J.J. 2016. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes from different host plants in North China. PLoS One 11(1): e0146345.
  47. Xu L.Y., Zhu H.P., Ozkan H.E., Bagley W.E., Derksen R.C., and Krause C.R. 2010. Adjuvant effects on evaporation time and wetted area of droplets on waxy leaves. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 53(1): 13-20.
  48. Zand E., Aliverdi A., Hammami H., and Heidari A. 2013. Adjuvants, oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals. 94 pp. (translation in Persian)