عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Tan spot )Pyrenophora tritici-repentis( is one of the most destructive leaf diseases that causes significant damages to wheat during epidemic periods. The application of fungicides is a rapid control practice of the disease during epidemic periods. Under the Integrated Management of Diseases (IDM), fungicides application for controlling leaf diseases is recommended based on disease level (disease pressure), plant growth stages, and only for susceptible cultivars. Several fungicides have been proposed for controlling tan spot, but the efficiency of recommended fungicides is effective when they are used to reduce the disease pressure on important plant leaves especially flag leaf. According to growth stages, four timing have been recommended to fungicides application including, T0 (early stem elongation to node forming 1), T1 (node formation 2-3), T2 (the full flag leaf emergence) and T3 (flowering). The results of fungicides application at different growth stages of wheat are inconsistent and also there is no comprehensive study about the timing of fungicides application for controlling this disease in Iran. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the appropriate timing of fungicides application at four wheat growth stages.
Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted in a split plot design with four replications. The main and sub-main factors of the experiment were cultivars (Karim and Koohdasht) and the spraying treatments, respectively, and common fungicides (such as Tilte, Folicur, Falcon, and Rexduo) were sprayed at four timings including, T0 (early stem elongation to node forming 1), T1 (node formation 2-3), T2 (the full flag leaf emergence) and T3 (flowering). The spraying treatments were as follows: one, two, three and four spraying times. The efficiency of spraying treatments was evaluated one week after the last spraying by determining the disease index (incidence, severity and area under the disease progress curve; AUDPC) and also comparing the yield and yield components.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that spraying treatments from the full flag leaf emergence to flowering stages (Tr3, Tr5, Tr6, Tr8 and Tr9) decreased the values of AUDPC-I by 42.1 to 80.5% and 33 to 76.6% for Koohdasht and Karim cultivars, respectively, whereas the values of AUDPC-S decreased by 30.7 to 47% and 33 to 58% in Koohdasht and Karim cultivars, respectively. The effect of spraying treatments on damage reduction showed that the damage reduction ranged between 1.4-30.8% and 1.1-29.7% in Koohdasht and Karim cultivars, respectively. The highest damage reduction was observed at the full flag leaf emergence to flowering stages. The highest yield increase was observed at the full flag leaf emergence to flowering stages, which was more than 36% (1071.2 to 1298.9 kg/ ha) and 34% (1054.5 to 1313.8 Kg/ ha) in Koohdasht and Karim cultivars, respectively. The spraying treatments at the node formation stages had the least effect on the yield improvement, which were, respectively, 2.1-7.1% and 1.5-5% in Koohdasht and Karim cultivars. In both cultivars, the comparison of economic profit showed that treatment of Tr3 (flag leaf emergence stage), in addition to decreasing the disease severity and yield increase, and reduction of spraying costs had the highest economic profit compared to other spraying treatments (Tr6, Tr8 and Tr9). Spraying prior to the appearance of flag leaf stage (node formation) was not effective for reducing tan spot severity.
Conclusions: The treatment of Tr3 (spraying once at the full flag leaf emergence stage), was the best timing of fungicide application for the disease pressure reduction, and the yield and economic profit increase. In addition to the timing and spraying frequency, the disease pressure reduction rate and yield enhancement, economic profit should be also considered to decide on spraying application.