بررسی فلور و پراکنش علف‌های هرز باغ‌های پسته (Pistacia vera L.) شهرستان کرمان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی فلور وضعیت پراکنش علف‌های هرز باغ‌های پسته (Pistacia vera) شهرستان کرمان، تعداد 19 باغ از چهار بخش این شهرستان به طور تصادفی انتخاب و نمونه‌برداری علف‌های هرز با استفاده از کوآدرات 5/0× 5/0 متر مطابق الگوی W در سال 1393 انجام شد. سپس علف‌های هرز موجود در هر کوآدرات به تفکیک جنس و گونه شناسایی و تعداد علف‌های هرز هر گونه داخل کادر نیز شمارش شد. شاخص‌های فراوانی گونه، یکنواختی پراکنش، میانگین تراکم گونه و شاخص غالبیت به علاوه فراوانی نسبی، یکنواختی پراکنش نسبی، میانگین تراکم نسبی و شاخص غالبیت نسبی برای هر گونه محاسبه شدند. در نهایت جهت گروه‌بندی علف‌های هرز از روش تجزیه خوشه‌ای به روش وارد و با استفاده از مربع فاصله اقلیدسی استفاده شد. در این تحقیق 57 گونه علف هرز از 18 خانواده گیاهی شناسایی شد که دو لپه‌ای‌ها با 45 گونه متنوع‌تر از گونه‌های تک لپه با 11 گونه بودند. پنج علف هرز جو موشی (Hordeum murinum L.)، پیچک صحرایی (Convolvulus arvensis L.)، تلخه (Acroptilon repense L.)، پنجه مرغی (Cynodon dactylon L.) و اسفناج وحشی (Atriplex sp.) به ترتیب بیشترین فراوانی را داشتند و با بیشترین شاخص غالبیت، مهم‌ترین علف‌های هرز باغ‌های پسته شهرستان کرمان شناخته شدند. تجزیه خوشه‌ای گونه‌های شناسایی شده را به چهار گروه تقسیم کرد که به ترتیب اهمیت از پایین به بالای دندروگرام قرار گرفتند. نتایج این تقسیم‌بندی شباهت زیادی به نتایج به دست آمده از بررسی شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری شده داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Flora and Distribution of Weeds in Pistachio (Pistacia vera) Orchards of Kerman City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi
  • Mahnaz Mirzaei
  • Hadi Mehdikhani
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Weeds movement and their dispersal power are amongst the major factors affecting the agricultural plants success. Diversity reflects the complexity of a system and can maintain its sustainability. Higher diversity results in higher inherent complexity of agro-ecosystems and strengthens their processes. It is necessary to realize the spatial distribution and temporal properties of the biodiversity components in agro-ecosystems, for the conservation and optimal utilization. Since weeds as a complementary component of agro-ecosystems are inseparable, studying species and their functional and structural diversity plays an important role in weed management and balance of ecological systems. Pistachio is one of the most economically important and strategic agricultural products in Iran. Weeds are one of the serious problems in pistachio orchards creating problems through competition, and costs imposed on farmers. Studying distribution and density of weed species can play an effective role in weed management. Therefore, this study was to assess the weeds flora and their distribution in pistachio orchards at Kerman city.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the flora and weeds distribution in pistachio (Pistacia vera) orchards of Kerman city, 19 orchards in 4 regions were selected. Weeds population sampling was conducted in a W pattern using 0.5×0.5 m² quadrates in 2014. The weeds at each quadrate were identified based on genus and species and the number of weed species was counted. Indices including frequency, uniformity of distribution, mean density, and abundance index as well as relative frequency, relative uniformity of distribution, relative mean density, and relative abundance were also calculated. Finally, weed species were classified based on cluster analysis using the Ward method and Euclidean distance square.
Results and Discussion: The weeds of pistachio orchards were belonged to 18 families and 57 species that dicotyledons with 45 species (78.95 percentage) had higher diversity than monocotyledons with 11 species (19.30 percentage). Family of Asteraceae with 12 weed species was the most abundant weed at Kerman’s pistachio orchards followed by Poaceae with 10 weed species, Chenopodiaceae with eight weed species and Fabaceae with seven weed species. According to the photosynthetic pathway, diversity of C3 weed species with 38 species (66.67 percentage) was more than twice of C4 weed species with 16 species (28.7 percentage). Based on life-cycle, diversity of annuals with 32 species (56.14 percentage) was more than perennials with 32 species (42.10 percentage). Five species of mouse barley (Hordeum murinum L.), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), knapweed (Acroptilon repense L.), bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.), and saltbush (Atriplex sp. L.) had the greatest frequency. The most important species of weeds with maximum abundance index were mouse barley, knapweed, saltbush, field bindweed, and bermuda grass. Based on cluster analysis, species were divided into four groups and based on importance were performed from the bottom to the top of the dendrogram.
Conclusions: Although the number of halophytic weeds in the pistachio orchards of Kerman was remarkable, the frequency and relative density of these weeds were not considerable. Identifying weed species, as well as their structural and functional diversity in pistachio orchards seems to improve the horticultural production management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abundance Index
  • Density
  • Frequency
  • Pistachio orchards
  • Species richness
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