گونه‌هایی از بالا خانواده Aphelenchoidea (Nematoda: Rhabditida) مرتبط با گیاهان زرشک، زعفران و عناب در استان خراسان جنوبی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

چهار جنس Aphelenchoides(با هفت گونه)، Aphelenchus،Aprutides و Ektaphelenchoides (هر سه جنس با یک گونه) از بالاخانواده Aphelenchoidea از خاک اطراف ریشه زرشک، زعفران و عناب در شهرستان‌های استان خراسان جنوبی جداسازی و مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت. از بین گونه های شناسایی شده، دو گونهAphelenchoides lichenicola وA. varicaudatus به‌عنوان گزارش‌های جدید از ایران بوده و مشخصات ریخت شناسی و ریخت سنجی آنها توضیح داده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Species of Superfamily Aphelenchoidea (Nematoda: Rhabditida) Associated with (Crocus sativus, Berberis vulgaris, Ziziphus zizyphus) from South Khorasan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Alvani 1
  • Esmat Mahdikhani moghadam 1
  • Hamid Rouhani 1
  • Abbas Mohammadi 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

Introduction: South Khorasan province is the main area for production of Berberis vulgaris (family), Crocus sativus (family) and Ziziphus zizyphus (family). Nematodes belong to superfamily Aphelenchoidea are easy to be identified by the size of the body, stylet without knobs, large median bulb, long overlapping on the intestine and placement of the vulva in the posterior part of body. In this survey, we identified nematodes belong the superfamily Aphelenchoidea in these three important plant. Four species of genus Aphelenchoides and one species of each genus Aphelenchus, Aprutides and Ektaphelenchoides were identified. Among them, two species Aphelenchoides lichenicola and A. varicaudatus are new records for Iranian nematofauna.
Materials and Methods: Soil sampling: 360 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of three important yields (B. vulgaris, C. sativus and Z. zizyphus) in south Khorasan province. Samples were taken from the depth of 5-40 cm different points with a soil auger, put in polyethylene bags with necessary labeling and brought to the laboratory, kept in the refrigerator at 4 °C, until processed.
Processing of samples and Preparation of slides: Nematodes were extracted from soil samples using the Jenkins (1964) and Whitehead (1965) method. They were then handpicked, killed and fixed according to De Grisse (1969) method. Genera and species were identified based on morphological and morphometerical characters by valid keys and references.
Measurements and drawings: Measurements were done with an ocular micrometer of “Olympus” model microscope
Results and Discussion: This survey resulted in 10 species belong to superfamily Aphelenchoidea which two species of them are new for Iranian nematode fauna. Aphelenchoides lichenicola and A. varicaudatus are new records from South Khorasan province. lichenicola characterized by: Body straight to slightly arcuate ventrally. Lip region rounded, offset by constriction. Transverse striae of cuticle faint, about 0.8 µm apart near mid-body. Lateral fields with four incisures, inner ones faint. Stylet about 9.5-10.5 µm, conus 42-44% of stylet length. Median oesophageal bulb oval to somewhat rectangular with rounded corners, offset from procorpus. Oesophageal glands dorsal to intestine, extending to 46-58µm. Nerve ring just behind isthmus. Excretory pore opposite or close to posterior margins of nerve ring. Vulva a transverse slit, raised. Vagina usually directed anteriorly. Ovary outstretched, with a single row of oocytes. Post-vulval uterine sac half or more of vulva-anus distance. Vulval-anus distance 127-211 µm. Rectum about 1.5 times anal body-width long. Tail elongate-conoid with terminus bearing a ventral somewhat stellate projection whose axial ray is more prominent than the others. Varicaudatus characterized by: The elongate body is slightly curved ventrally when killed by heat. Lip region distinctly offset with rounded sides and flattened anteriorly. Cuticular annulations are fine. Lateral fields with four incisures. Stylet 12.5-14 µm long with small basal thickenings. Median oesophageal bulb roundly rectangular just slightly longer than wide. Excretory pore placed in 63-75.5µm from the anterior end. Nerve ring behind the Excretory pore. Vagina slopes forward into the body. Reproductive tract with a single anterior ovary which is often reflexed, sometimes almost back to the beginning of the ovary. Post vulval sac prominent, extending one third to half the vulva to anus distance. Tail terminus variable, sometimes bifid, often with the dorsal process decreased to give an angular indented region adjacent to the longer ventral mucro, occasionally the tail terminus tapers gradually to a terminal mucro.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • A. lichenicola
  • A. varicaudatus
  • Identification
  • nematode
1- Aliramaji F., Pourjam E., and Karegar A. 2011. Some species of suborder Aphelenchina, from Jiroft and Kahnoj region, from South Iran. Plant Disease, 46 (2): 161-178.
2- Aliramaji F., Pourjam E., Atighi M.R., YE W., Roshan-Bakhsh A., and Anderam M. 2014. Description of Ektaphelenchoides poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran with a diagnostic key and compendium to the species of the genus Ektaphelenchoides Baujard, 1984. Russian Journal of Nematology, 22 (1): 11–22.
3- Alvani A., Mahdikhani-Moghadam E., and Rouhani H. 2013. New records of Boleodorus Thorne, 1941 from Berberis vulgaris L. in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 31 (1): 1-9.
4- Alvani A., Mahdikhani-Moghadam E., Rouhani H., and Mohammadi A. 2014. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes on Ziziphus zizyphus in South Khorasan province. Proceedings of 21th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Uremia, Iran, pp. 313. (in Persian with English abstract).
5- Andrassy I. 2007. Free-living nematodes of Hungary (Nematoda errantia). Vol. II. In: C. Csuzdi & S. Mahunka (Eds). Pedozoologica Hungarica No. 4. Hungarian Natural History Museum and Systematic Zoology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, 496 pp.
6- Baranovskaya I.A. 1958. [Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Paraphelenchus (Micoletzky, 1922) Micoletzky, 1925 (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae).] Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 37: 13-19.
7- Bastian H.C. 1865. Monograph on the Anguillulidae, or free nematoids, marine, land, and freshwater; with descriptions of 100 new species. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 25: 73-184.
8- Das V.M. 1960. Studies on the nematode parasites of plants in Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh, India). Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 19: 553-605.
9- De Grisse A.T. 1969. Redescriptionou modification de quelques techniques utilissisedans L; etude des Nematodes Phytoparasutaires. MededRijksfaculteit der Landbouwetenscheppen. Gent, 34: 351-359.
10- Ebsary B.A. 1991. Catalog of the order Tylenchida (Nematoda). Ottawa, Research Branch Agriculture Canada.
11- Eroshenko A.S., and Volkova T.A. 1988. plant parasitic nematodes of the South Far East. Dalnevostochnoe Otdelenie Akademia Nauk SSSR Vladivostok, 138 pp.
12- Franklin M.T. 1957. Aphelenchoides composticola n. sp. and A. saprophilus n. sp. from mushroom compost and rotting plant tissues. Nematologica, 2: 306-313.
13- Fuchs A.G. 1937. Neue parasitische und halbparasitische Nematoden bei Borkenkäfern und einige andere Nematoden. I. Teil. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 70: 291-380.
14- Ghaderi R., Kashi Nahanji L., and Karegar A. 2011. The Nematodes of Iran (based on the published reports until 2011). Agricultural Education and Extension Publication, Tehran, Iran, 371 pp.
15- Grewal P.S., Siddiqi M.R., and Atkey P.T. 1992. Aphelenchoides richardsoni sp. nov. and Seinura paynei sp. nov. from mushrooms in the British Isles and S. obscura sp. nov. from India (Nematoda: Aphelenchina). Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 1: 204-211.
16- Huang R.E., Ye W., Liang J., Lu Q., and Zhang X.Y. 2012. Tylaphelenchus jiaae n. sp. and Aphelenchoides varicaudatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoidinae) from Simao pine in Yunnan Province, China. Nematology, 14 (2): 93-108.
17- Hunt D.J. 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics.Wallingford, UK,CABI Publishing, 352 pp.
18- Hunt D.J. 2008. A checklist of the Aphelenchoidea (Nematoda: Tylenchina). Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics, 10: 99-135.
19- Husain S.I., and Khan A.M. 1968. Paurodontella n. gen. and three new species of nematodes from North India (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). Nematologica, 13: 493-500.
20- Ibrahim S.K., and Hooper D.J. 1994. Aphelenchoides varicaudatus sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 4 (2): 210-214.
21- Jenkins W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter, 48: 692.
22- Khan E., and Basir M.A. 1964. Boleodorus impar n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from India. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 31: 187-190.
23- Lima M.B., and Siddiqi M.R. 1963. Boleodorus volutus n. sp. (Nematoda: Nothotylenchinae) found in soil about grass roots in England. Nematologica, 9: 19-23.
24- Mahdikhani-Moghadam E., and Alvani S. 2013. Plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) with two new records of Geocenamus squamatus and Filenchus pratensis from Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 31 (2): 99-103.
25- Sanwal K.C. 1961. A key to the species of the nematode genus Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1894. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 39: 143-148.
26- Scognamiglio A. 1974. Aprutides guidettii n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Bulletino del laboratorio di entomologia agraria `Filippo Silvestri`, 31: 17-21.
27- Sethi C.L., and Swarup G. 1968. Plant parasitic nematodes of northwestern India. I. The genus Tylenchorhynchus. Nematologica, 14: 77-88.
28- Shahina F. 1996. A diagnostic compendium of the genus Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1894 (Nematoda: Aphelenchida) with some new records of the group from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 14: 1-32.
29- Siddiqi M.R., and Hawksworth D.L. 1982. Nematodes associated with Galls on Cladonia glauca, including two new species. Lichenologist, 14 (2): 175-184.
30- Steiner G. 1936. Opuscula miscellanea nematologica, IV. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 3: 74-80.
31- Sumenkova N.I. 1987. Taxonomy of phytonematodes of the genus Ottolenchus (Nematoda, Tylenchidae) and a description of two new species of the genus. Zoologicheskiizhurnal, 66: 1805-1811.
32- Thorne G., and Malek R.B. 1968. Nematodes of the Northern Great Plains. Part I. Tylenchida (Nemata: Secernentea). Technical Bulletin of the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, 31: 1-111.
33- Whitehead A.G., and Hemming J.R. 1965. A comparison of some quantitative methods of extracting vermiform nematodes from soil. Annual Applied Biology, 55 : 25-38.