تأثیر قارچ های میکوریزایی و علف‌کش ترفلان بر سبز شدن، رشد و درصد کلونیزاسیون ریشه در گیاه شبدر سفید (Trifolium repens L)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه تأثیر دزهای مختلف علف‌کش ترفلان و دو گونه قارچ‌ میکوریزایی بر اجزاء سبز شدن (سرعت سبز شدن، یکنواختی سبز شدن و زمان تا 10، 50 و 90 درصد سبز شدن)، برخی صفات رشدی و کلونیزاسیون میکوریزا در گیاه شبدر سفید (Trifolium repens L.)، آزمایشی به-صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شاهرود در سال 1391 انجام شد. عوامل مورد بررسی در این آزمایش شامل کاربرد میکوریزا در سه سطح M1: عدم تلقیح، M2: Glommus intraradices و :M3 Glommus mosseae و دزهای مختلف علف‌کش ترفلان در چهار سطح T1: شاهد عدم کاربرد علف‌کش، T2: 1000،:T3 1500 و T4 : 2000 میلی‌لیتر علف‌کش ترفلان از نوع تجاری در هکتار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش دز علف‌کش ترفلان، یکنواختی سبز شدن (EU) کاهش و زمان تا رسیدن به 10(D10) و 90(D90) درصد سبز شدن افزایش یافت. در غلظت های مختلف علف‌کش، تلقیح با میکوریزا حداکثر جوانه زنی (Emax) و وزن خشک اندام هوایی را بطور معنی داری نسبت به عدم تلقیح افزایش داد. همچنین، درصد کلونیزاسیون ریشه در دز پایین علف‌کش تحت تاثیر تلقیح میکوریزا نسبت به عدم تلقیح بطور معنی داری افزایش یافت. تلقیح با قارچ G. intraradices طول ریشه را در دزهای 1000 و 1500 میلی لیتر علف‌کش نسبت به عدم تلقیح در همین تیمارها به ترتیب 34 و 57 درصد افزایش داد. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، قارچ های میکوریزا از طریق بهبود رشد گیاه سبب کاهش اثرات تنش دزهای پایین علف کش ترفلان بر گیاه شبدر می شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Shahgholi 1
  • Ali Ansori 1
  • Hossein Ghasem Talaei 2
  • hassan makarian 1
  • Mohammad Reza Asgharipour 2
1 Shahrood University of Technology
2 University of Zabol
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Herbicides, despite of their control of weeds, have the potential to affect sensitive crops in rotation and also beneficial non-targeted soil microbes including vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi (6). AM fungi can increase the growth of crops through increasing uptake of phosphorus and insoluble micronutrients, and indirectly by improving soil quality parameters (30). However, several authors have reported different effects of herbicides on VAM symbiosis, which ranges from no adverse effects to slightly or highly toxic effects (6). Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi (27). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Trifluralin herbicide on the growth and root colonization of clover.
Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood during 2012. Treatments were included three levels of mycorrhiza inoculation, M1: non mycorrhiza (control), M2: Glommus mosseae and M3: Glommus intraradices and herbicide treatments were included four levels of Trifluralin(T1: 0, T2: 1000, T3: 1500 and T4: 2000 ml ha-1). In mycorrhizal treatments, 20 g inoculums were thoroughly mixed with soil. Seeds of clover (Trifolium repens L.) were sown in the pots maintained near the field in order to provide normal environmental conditions. Seedlings were thinned to two plants per pot at three leaf stages. At the time of harvesting, the emergence and growth characteristics of clover and root colonization was also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 calculated by LSD test.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that emergence, uniformity (EU) values decreased and time to 10% (D10) and 90% (D90) of emergence increased significantly with increasing herbicide dose. The maximum emergence (Emax) value and clover shoot dry matter was obtained with inoculation by mycorrhiza species in all levels of herbicide doses than non-inoculation treatments (figures 1 and 3). Inoculation of clover with G. intraradices increased root length by 34 and 57% at the herbicide doses of 1000 and 1500 ml ha-1 than non-inoculation treatments, respectively (figure 2). Results showed that, the root colonization percentage improved in low rate of Treflan by inoculation of mycorrhizal than non-inoculation treatment significantly (figure 4). These results are in agreement with the results reported by Garcia-Romeria et al. (14). They reported that shoot dry weights of AM fungi infected pea plants, were higher when the cyanazine was applied at the rate of 0.05mg ml -1 than applied at the rate of 0.1 ml per pot (14). Busse et al. (6), reported that triclorpyr, imazapyr and sulfometuron methyl herbicides did not alter the capability of mycorrhizal fungi to infect roots, even at concentrations detrimental to seedling growth. Makarian et al., (21) reported that herbicide application significantly decreased the growth (dry matter, chlorophyll content and height) of maize and barley plants but mycorrhizal colonization increased plant growth at low levels of herbicide concentration. It seems that, one of the main reasons that enable the mycorrhizal plant to partially or completely overcome the stress of herbicides as compared with non-mycorrhizal plant is the enhanced nutrient uptake (6). Enhanced nutrients uptake is due, in part, to the hyphal extension into the soil and subsequent transfer of them back to the root (30). Recent researches have established that AM fungi are able to absorb organic compounds, macro and micro nutrients from the soil and transfer them to plants (29). Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi. This may be due to a reduction or elimination of competing microorganisms or to a pesticide mediated change in plant metabolism resulting in increased production of materials stimulatory to AM fungi in the rhizosphere (27).
Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that with increasing Treflan doses the clover seed emergence, root colonization, dry matter production and root length of clover significantly decreased than non-herbicide application treatment. But inoculation of clover seeds with mycorrhizal fungi increased seed emergence and shoot dry matter at the all doses and root length and colonization percentage of the low rates of herbicide. Based on our results, mycorrhiza fungi can alleviate crop stress due to low doses of Treflan injury through increasing of plant growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Herbicide stress
  • G. mosseae
  • G. intraradices
  • Soil application herbicide
1- Al-Karaki G. N., McMichael B., and Zah J. 2004. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza, 14: 263-269.
2- Allen M. F., Moore T. S., and Christensen M. 1982. Phytohormone changes in Bouteloua gracils infected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. II Altered levels of gibberellin like substance's and abscisic acid in the host plant. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60: 468- 471.
3- Amato V. A., Hoverson R. R., and Joseph H. 1965 Microanatomical and morphological responses of corn and cotton to trifluralin. Proceedings of Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, p. 234 (Abstracts).
4- Antunes PM., Deaville D., and Goss M J. 2006. Effect of two AMF life strategies on the tripartite symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and soybean. Mycorrhiza, 16: 167–173.
5- Borzouei M., Izadi E., Rashed mohassel MH, Hassanzadeh M., Rastgoo M. 2013. Effect of Trifluralin herbicide residues in soil on the growth of some plants. The 4th Iranian Weed Conference. 6-8 Feb. 2013. Ahvaz University. (in Persian with English abstract).
6- Busse M. D., Fiddler G. O., and Ratcliff A. W. 2004. Ectomycorrhizal formation in herbicide treated soils of differing clay and organic matter content. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 152: 23-34.
7- Cedergreen N. 2008. Is growth stimulation by low doses of Glyphosate sustained over time? Envir. Poll. 156: 1099– 1104. [58] Kenneth, A. H. 1982. The chemistry of pesticides: Their metabolism, mode of action and uses in crop protection. The Macmillan Press Ltd. London and Basingstoke, pp 28-58.
8- Chen B. D., Li X. L., Tao H. Q., Christie P., and Wong M. H. 2003. The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in zinc uptake by red clover growing in calcareous soil spiked with various quantities of zinc. Chemosphere, 50: 839-846
9- Demir S. 2004. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on some physiological growth parameters of pepper. Turkish Journal of Biology, 28: 85-90.
10- Duke S. O. 1990. Overview of herbicide mechanisms of action. Environmental Health Perspectives, 87: 263-271.
11- Falah A. R., Beshareti H. and khoseravi H. 2006. The Soil Microbiology. p180. (In persian).
12- Fathi Gh., and Arjmand A. 1999. The Herbicides and Plant Physiology. Publishing Razavi Holy Shrine. pp 171. (In persian).
13- Garcia I., Mendoza R., and Pomar M. C. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and dark.
14- Garcia-Romeria I., Miquel J. A., and Ocampo J. A. 1988. Effect of Cyanazine herbicide on VA mycorrhizal infection and growth of Pisum sativum. Plant and Soil, 107: 207-210.
15- Hess D., and Bayer D. 1974. The effect of trifluralin on the ultrastructure of dividing cells of the root meristems of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (Acala 4-42). Journal of Cell Science, 15: 429-441.
16- Horst V. 2004. Further root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in already mycorrhizal plants in suppressed after a critical level of root colonization. Plant Physiology, 161: 339-341.
17- Jeenie P., and Khanna S. V. 2011. In Vitro Sensitivity of Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria to Herbicides. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 51 (2): 230-233.
18- Kaldorf M., and Ludwig-Muller J. 2000. AM fungi might affect the rootmorphology of maize by increasing indole-3-butiric acid biosynthesis. Physiologia Plantarum, 109: 58-67.
19- Kust C. A., and Struckmeyer B. E. 1971. Effects of trifluralin on growth, nodulation, and anatomy of soybeans. Weed Science, 19: 147- 152.
20- Lignowski E. M., and Scott E. G. 1971. Trifluralin and root growth. Plant and Cell Physiology, 12: 701-708.
21- Makarian H., Asghari H. R., and Motaheri Neghad H. 2010. The effect of mycorrhizal fungi on dry matter production and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of herbicides metribuzin. p 486. Proceedings of the 11th Iranian Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 24-26 Jul. 2010. Shahied Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran. (in Persian with English abstract).
22- Marenco R. A., and Lopes N. F. 1994. Leaf chlorophyll concentration and nitrogen content in soybean plants treated with herbicide, Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal, 6(1): 7-13.
23- Marin M., Ybarra M., Fe A., Garcia-Ferriz L. 2002. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and pesticides on Cynara cardunculus growth. Agricultural Food Science Finland, 11: 245–251.
24- Meng J.I. A. 1982. Effect of soil fumigants and fungicides on vesicolar arbuscular fungi. Phytopathology, 58: 522.
25- Morrison I. N., Nawolsky K. M., Marshall G. M., and Smith A. E. 1989. Recovery of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) injured by trifluralin. Weed Science, 37: 784-789.
26- O’Connor P. J., Smith S. E., and Smith E. A. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhizas influence plant diversity and community structure in semi-arid herbland. New Phytology, 154(1): 209-218.
27- Pankhurst C.E., Blair B.L., Magarey R.C., Stirling G.R., Garside A.L. 2005. Effects of biocides and rotation breaks on soil organisms associated with the poor early growth of sugarcane in continuous monoculture. Plant and Soil, 268: 255-269.
28- Philips J. M., and Hayman D. S. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining Parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of British Mycological Society, 55:158–161.
29- Powell J. R., Campbell R. G., Dunfield K. E., Gulden R. H., Hart M. M., Levy-Booth D. J., Klironomos J. N., Pauls K. P., Swanton C. J., Trevors J. T., and Antunes P. M. 2009. Effect of glyphosate on the tripartite symbiosis formed by Glomus intraradices, bradyrhizobbium japonicum, and genetically modified soybean. Applied Soil Ecology, 41: 128-136.
30- Sharma A. K. 2003. Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India.
31- Sheng M., Tang M., Chen H., Yang B., Zhang F., and Huang Y. 2008. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress. Mycorrhiza, 18: 287-296.
32- Smith S. E., and Read D. J. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.
33- Soltani A., and Maddah V. 2010. Simple applied programs for education and research in agronomy. ISSA Press, Iran, 80p. (In Persian).
34- Spencer W. F., and Cliath M. M. 1974. Factors affecting vapor loss of Trifluralin from soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 22: 987-991.
35- Vogel-Mikus K., Drobne D., and Regvar M. 2005. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of pennycress (Thlaspi praecox Wulf. Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter Slovenia. Environmental Pollution, 133: 233-242.
36- Vyas S.C. 1988. Soil microorganisms and their activities. Nontarget Effects of Agricultural Fungicides. CRC Press, FL, Boca Raton. 258–275.