Evaluation of Chemical Control of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Fields in South Kerman

Document Type : Research Article


1 South of Kerman Agricultural Jihad Organization, Jiroft

2 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil

3 Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Jiroft, Iran. Verified email at areo.ir. Abiotic stressesplant physiology

4 Ardebil


Introduction: Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important vegetables (with 2.305 million tons production) in Iran. Onion cultivation area of southern Kerman is 5732 hectares and this region is ranked first for onion production (307 thousand tons of production) in Iran. Onion growth and yield are significantly reduced by weed competition. Among the dominant weeds in onion fields at southern Kerman, Cyperus rotundus is one of the most important and problematic weeds. The slow growth of onion in the early stage, causes a significant yield loss due to the competition. C. rotundus is a perennial weed of the Cyperaceae family spreading quickly throughout the extensive underground system and tuber, with high ability to compete. This weed can decrease the average onions yield by 23 – 84%. Application of herbicides is the most prevalent weed control method in onion fields. Oxyfluorfen, and haloxyfop-r-methyl ester, are the commonly used herbicides for C. rotundus control in onion fields at southern Kerman. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different herbicides on this weed.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources research and Education Center, Jiroft, southern Kerman, during 2017-2018 and 2018-19. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment treatments included: T1- Metribuzin (Sencor) 80% WP 500 gr.ha-1, T2- Oxyfluorfen(goal) EC24%, 2 lit.ha-1, T3- Oxadiazon (ronstar) EC 12% 3 lit.ha-1 + Oxyfluorfen(goal) EC24%, 2 lit.ha-1, T4- Pendimethalin (stomp) EC33% ,3 lit.ha-1, T5 Oxadiazon (ronstar) EC 12% 3 lit.ha-1, T6- Oxadiazon (ronstar) EC 12% 3 lit.ha-1 + Bentazon (bazageran) SL48% 3 lit.ha-1, T7- Oxyfluorfen(goal) EC24% at 1/5 lit.ha-1 two stages by 0.75 lit.ha-1, (one week after transplanting and three weeks afterwards), T8- Pendimethalin (prowl) CS 45.5% 3 lit.ha-1, T9- hand weeding and T10- control (no control). Other weeds except C. rotundus were hand-removed during the season. The herbicides were applied using a Matabi sprayer with delivering 354 L ha-1 at 2 bar spray pressure. C. rotundus shoot and underground organs dry weight, density, average of bulb weight and onion yield were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS ver.9.1 software and the comparison of means was undertaken based on the LSD test.
Results and Discussion: The combined analysis of variance showed that the effect of treatment was significant on shoot and underground organs dry weight and density of C. rotundus, mean onion weight of bulb and yield, and reduced dry weight and density of C. rotundus and increased the onion yield. Among the chemical treatments, the combined application of Oxadiazon (Ronstar) as pre emergence followed by application of Bentazon (Bazageran) as post emergence (Treatment 6), decreased the density, underground and shoot dry weight of C. rotundus by 96.89 and 93% relative to the control, respectively. The highest onion yield was obtained from the mentioned treatment and increased the onion yield by 87% with respect to the control.
Indeed, the combined application of these two herbicides in different growth stages of weeds and onion, was able to resolve the limitations of separate application of these herbicides leading to the most effective control of C. rotundus.
Conclusion: The results of this experiment show that the combination of herbicides can be an effective strategy to increase their effectiveness. The combined application of Oxadiazon (Ronstar) EC 12% at 3 lit.ha-1 as pre emergence + Bentazon (Bazageran) SL48% at 3 lit.ha-1  as post emergence was the most effective treatment after hand-weeding on purple nutsedge management and increasing  the onion yield. Therefore, the mentioned treatment is recommended to control of C. rotundus in transplanting cultivation of onion in autumn farming in south of Kerman Provence.  


1- Anonymous. 2018. Statistics on agriculture (2016-2017 Crop year) .Ministry of Jihad-e- agriculture, department of planning & economic affairs, information and communication technology center. Volume 1.page 75. (In persian)
2- Babaei nejad B., Rostami M., and Dadkhah A.R. 2017. The effect of mechanical and chemical weed control on the yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) seedlings cultivated fall in Hormozgan province. Weed Search Journal 8(2): 79-91.
3- Das T.K., and Yaduraju N.T. 2008. Effect of soil solarization and crop husbandry practices on weed species competition and dynamics in soybean-wheat cropping system. Indian Journal of Weed Science 40 (1&2): 1-5.
4- Ghaffoor A. 2004. Integrated weed management in different varieties of onion (Allium cepa L.). Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 10(1-2): 55-62.
5- Herrmann Ch., Margaret M., Goll A., Phillippo C.J., and Zandstra B.H. 2017. Post emergence Weed Control in Onion with Bentazon, Flumioxazin, and Oxyfluorfen. Weed Science. Soc. Am1-12.
6- Holm L.G., Plucknett D.L., Pancho J.V., and Herberger J.P. 1977. The World’s Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing. pp. 125–133.
7- Hossein panahi F., Hosseini S.A., Pouramir F., and Nasiri mahalati M. 2009. Evaluation of purple nutsedge control in potato field. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research 8(5): 812-817.
8- Jordan-Molero J.E., and Stoller E.W. 1978. Seasonal development of yellow and purple nutsedges (Cyperus esculentus and C. rotundus) in Illinois. Weed Science 26: 614-618.
9- Karimi M.I., Hassan G., Ishfaq khan M., Ahmad khan I., and Bibi S. 2012. The impact of chemical and non-chemical weed control methods on weeds dynamics and on the yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 18(2): 255-263.
10- Khokhar K.M., Mahmood T., Shakeel M., and Farooq Chaudhry M. 2006. Evaluation of integrated weed management practices for onion in Pakistan. Crop Protection 25: 968–972.
11- Khthepuri J.V., and Jawale S. 2007. Weed management in irrigated Onion under plane zone of western mahashtra. Madras Agricultural Journal 94: 127-130.
12- Lifshitz N., Gur Y., shlevin E., and Alon Y. 1976. The use of Bentazon for the control of Cyperus rotundus and Tribulus terrestris in peanuts and of Ammi species in onions. Phytoparasitica 4(2): 150-1.
13- Mahzari S., Baghestani M.A., Shirani raad A.H., Nasiri M., and Omrani M. 2012. Combined Mechanico-Chemical Management of Weed Control (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) and nutsedge (Cyperus diformis L.) in Rice. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology (Agricultural Sciences) Volume 6. 4(24): 441-454. (In Persian)
14- Malik Y.S., Singh K.P., and Pandita M.L. 1981. Chemical weed control studies on onion. Annual conf. Indian Soc. Weed Science.32.
15- Marwat K.B., Gul B., Saeed M., and Hussain Z. 2005. Efficacy of different herbicides for controlling weeds in onion in higher altitudes. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 11(1&2): 61-68.
16- Peachey E., Felix J., and Boydston R.A. 2008. Dry bulb onion tolerance to sequential applications of bentazon applied to control yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in the Pacific Northwest. Proc. Weed science .Soc. Am 48: 33
17- Porwal M.K., and Singh M.M. 1993. Effect of nitrogen and weed management on onion. Indian journal of Agronomy 38(1): 74-77.
18- Ransom C.V., Rice C.A., and Ishida J.K. 2004. Yellow Nutsedge Competition in Dry Bulb Onion Production.Yellow nutsedge competition in dry bulb onion production. Oregon State University, Malheur experiment station, special report 1055.pp.97-99.
19- Sanjeev A., Sandhu K.S., and Ahuja S. 2003. Weed management through the use of herbicides in cabbage–onion relay cropping system. Ann. Biology 19: 27–30.
20- Smith R. 2007. Dry Bulb Onion Weed Control Studies. Monterey, CA: University of California Cooperative Extension.
21- Yazdani kaouchoei N., and Alam zade Ansari V.N. 2009. Effect of oxyflurfen and oxadiazone herbicides on weed control In the onion production season (Allium cepa L.). 6th Horticultural Science Conference, Rasht, University of Guilan. (In persian)