Interaction Effect between Nozzle Type and Application Time of Day on the Efficacy of Paraquat to control Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus.)

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan

2 Bu-Ali Sina University

Abstract

Introduction: When a contact herbicide is applied in the dark time of a day than in the light time, better weed control will be observed. Velvetleaf is a typical example of weeds in displaying the phenomenon of foliar Nyctinasty. This feature causes the leaf surface of velvetleaf is perpendicularly oriented to the ground during the dark time of day. As a result, when a contact herbicide is applied in the dark time of the day by a single flat fan nozzle which generates a perpendicular motion of spray droplets to the ground, the leaf surface of velvetleaf cannot be covered well. Therefore, the foliar Nyctinasty in velvetleaf reduces the efficacy of contact herbicide applied in the dark time of day. The main hypothesis leading this study was that if the motion of spray droplets is not perpendicular to the ground, it is possible to wet the leaves of velvetleaf in the dark time of day. In this study, the effects of using twin flat fan nozzles which generates a non-perpendicular motion of spray droplets to the ground in comparison with single flat fan nozzle on the efficacy of Paraquat at the different times of day were investigated.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in outdoor conditions at Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Treatments consisted of five doses of Paraquat (0, 75, 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1) using three types of nozzles (single anti-drift flat fan, twin anti-drift flat fan 2020, and twin anti-drift flat fan 7030) in two nozzle sizes (110015 and 11002) at four times of day (before sunset at 20:00, after sunset at 22:00, before sunrise at 05:00, and after sunrise at 7:00) with four replications which were sprayed at the six-to-seven-leaf stage of velvetleaf. Two days after spraying at 7:00, the shoots of velvetleaf were harvested nearly 1 cm above the soil surface. The individual fresh: dry weight ratio was used to analyze as nonlinear regression using a four-parametric logistic model.
Results and Discussion At all four application times of the day, increasing the nozzle size of single anti-drift flat fan nozzle increased the dose of Paraquat required for the 90% desiccation of velvetleaf shoots. While, except at some application times of day (22:00 and 07:00 in the case of twin anti-drift flat fan nozzle 2020 and 5:00 in the case of twin anti-drift flat fan nozzle 7030), increasing the nozzle size of twin anti-drift flat fan nozzles decreased the dose of Paraquat required for the 90% desiccation of velvetleaf shoots. Except in some cases (11002 twin anti-drift flat fan nozzle 2020 and 110015 twin anti-drift flat fan nozzle 7030), when Paraquat was sprayed with any nozzle size at 20:00 and 07:00, there was no significant difference in its efficacy. When Paraquat was sprayed with any nozzle size at 20:00 and 07:00, there was no significant difference in its efficacy. But, when it was sprayed with any nozzle size at 22:00 and 05:00, a significant difference in its efficacy was observed. So, the dose of Paraquat required for the 90% desiccation of velvetleaf shoots at 22:00 was significantly lower than that at 05:00. Our principal hypothesis in this study was confirmed. As when Paraquat was applied with twin anti-drift flat fan nozzles in the dark time of day, it more effectively improved the desiccation of velvetleaf shoots.
Conclusion: The treatment of the application of Paraquat with 11002 twin anti-drift flat fan nozzle 7030 at 22:00 required the minimum Paraquat dose to create the same desiccation intensity as other treatments. Therefore, this treatment is recommendable.

Keywords


1- Aliverdi A. 2018. The selection of proper nozzle for spraying sethoxydim at two wind speeds to control winter wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana). Journal of Plant Protection 32(2): 299–306. (In Persian)
2- Alves G.S., Kruger G.R., da Cunha J.P.A.R., de Santana D.G., Pinto L.A.T., Guimarães F., and Zaric M. 2017. Dicamba spray drift as influenced by wind speed and nozzle type. Weed Technology 31(5): 724–731.
3- ASAE. 2009. Spray nozzle classification by droplet spectra. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, S572.1, 4 p.
4- Baldwin B.C. 1963. Translocation of diquat in plants. Nature 198(4883): 872–873.
5- Berger S.T., Dobrow M.H., Ferrell J.A., and Webster T.M. 2014. Influence of carrier volume and nozzle selection on palmer amaranth control. Peanut Science 41(2): 120–123.
6- Cieslik L.F., Vidal R.A., and Trezzi M.M. 2014. Fomesafen toxicity to bean plants as a function of the time of application and herbicide dose. Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 36(3): 329–334.
7- Cobb A.H., and Reade J.P.H. 2010. Herbicides and plant physiology. John Wiley and Sons. UK, 296p.
8- Creech C.F., Henry R.S., Fritz B.K., and Kruger G.R. 2015a. Influence of herbicide active ingredient, nozzle type, orifice size, spray pressure, and carrier volume rate on spray droplet size characteristics. Weed Technology 29(2): 298–310.
9- Creech C.F., Henry R.S., Werle R., Sandell L.D., Hewitt A.J., and Kruger G.R. 2015b. Performance of post-emergent herbicides applied at different carrier volume rates. Weed Technology 29(3): 611– 624.
10- Dalazen G., and Merotto Jr A. 2016. Physiological and genetic bases of the circadian clock in plants and their relationship with herbicides efficacy. Planta Daninha 34(1): 191–198.
11- Fausey J.C., and Renner K.A. 2001. Environmental effects on CGA-248757 and flumiclorac efficacy/soybean tolerance. Weed Science 49(5): 668–674.
12- Ferguson J.C., Hewitt A.J., and O'Donnell C.C. 2016. Pressure, droplet size classification, and nozzle arrangement effects on coverage and droplet number density using air-inclusion dual fan nozzles for pesticide applications. Crop Protection 89: 231–238.
13- Ferreira M.C., Machado-Neto J.G., and Matuo T. 1998. Reduction in the rate and spray volume in night-time application of post-emergence herbicides on soybean crop. Planta Daninha 16(1): 25–36.
14- Guh J.O., Lee E.K., Kuk Y.I., and Park R.D. 1995. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of oxyfluorfen in rice (Oryza sativa) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Weed Research, Japan 40(4): 245–251.
15- Knoche M. 1994. Effect of droplet size and carrier volume on performance of foliage-applied herbicides. Crop Protection 13(3): 163–178.
16- Kudsk P. 2008. Optimising herbicide dose: a straightforward approach to reduce the risk of side effects of herbicides. Environmentalist 28(1): 49–55.
17- Lee S.D., and Oliver L.R. 1982. Efficacy of aciflurofen on broadleaf weeds: times and methods for application. Weed Science 30(5): 520–526.
18- Legleiter T.R., and Johnson W.G. 2016. Herbicide coverage in narrow row soybean as influenced by spray nozzle design and carrier volume. Crop Protection 83: 1–8.
19- Magnojet. 2019. Catalogue. http://www.magnojet.com.br/area_restrita
20- Martinson K.B., Sothern R.B., Koukkari W.L., Durgan B.R., and Gunsolus J.L. 2002. Circadian response of annual weeds to glyphosate and glufosinate. Chronobiology International 19(2): 405–422.
21- McMullan P.M. 2000. Utility adjuvants. Weed Technology 14(4): 792–797.
22- Meyer C.J., Norsworthy J.K., Kruger G.R., and Barber T.L. 2016. Effect of nozzle selection and spray volume on droplet size and efficacy of Engenia tank-mix combinations. Weed Technology 30(2): 377–390.
23- Miller R.P., Martinson K.B., Sothern R.B., Durgan B.R., and Gunsolus J.L. 2003. Circadian response of annual weeds in a natural setting to high and low application rates of four herbicides with different modes of action. Chronobiology International 20(2): 299–324.
24- Mohr K., Sellers B.A., and Smeda R.J. 2007. Application time of day influences glyphosate efficacy. Weed Technology 21(1): 7–13.
25- Monaco T.J., Weller S.C., and Ashton F.M. 2002. Weed science: principles and practices. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. USA, 685p.
26- Montgomery G.B., Treadway J.A., Reeves J.L., and Steckel L.E. 2017. Effect of time of day of application of 2,4-d, dicamba, glufosinate, paraquat, and saflufenacil on horseweed (Conyza canadensis) control. Weed Technology 31(4): 550–556.
27- Nelson K.A., Renner K.A., and Penner D. 2002. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control and tuber yield with glyphosate and glufosinate. Weed Technology 16(2): 360–365.
28- Norsworthy J.K., Oliver L.R., and Purcell L.C. 1999. Diurnal leaf movement effects on spray interception and glyphosate efficacy. Weed Technology 13(3): 466–470.
29- Norsworthy J.K., Smith K.L., and Griffith G. 2011. Evaluation of combinations of paraquat plus photosystem II-inhibiting herbicides for controlling failed stands of maize (Zea mays). Crop Protection 30(3): 307–310.
30- Preston C., Soar C.J., Hidayat I., Greenfield K.M., and Powles S.B. 2005. Differential translocation of paraquat in paraquat resistant populations of Hordeum leporinum. Weed Research 45(4): 289–295.
31- Prosser R.S., Anderson J.C., Hanson M.L., Solomon K.R., and Sibley P.K. 2016. Indirect effects of herbicides on biota in terrestrial edge-of-field habitats: A critical review of the literature. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 232: 59–72.
32- Purba E., Preston C., and Powles S.B. 1995. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat is strongly temperature dependent in resistant Hordeum leporinum Link and H. glaucum Steud. Planta 196(3): 464–468.
33- Ramsey R.J.L., Stephenson G.R., and Hall J.C. 2002. Effect of relative humidity on the uptake, translocation, and efficacy of glufosinate ammonium in wild oat (Avena fatua). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 73(1): 1–8.
34- Ritz C., Baty F., Streibig J.C., and Gerhard D. 2015. Dose-response analysis using R. PLoS One, 10(12):e0146021.
35- Rytwo G., and Tropp D. 2001. Improved efficiency of a divalent herbicide in the presence of clay, by addition of monovalent organocations. Applied Clay Science 18(5-6): 327–333.
36- Sasaki R.S., Teixeira M.M., Alvarenga C.B., Santiago H., and Maciel C.F.S. 2013. Spectrum of droplets produced by use adjuvants. Idesia 31(1): 27–33.
37- Schumacher C.E., and Hatterman-Valenti H.M. 2007. Effect of dose and spray volume on early-season broadleaved weed control in Allium using herbicides. Crop Protection 26(8): 1178–1185.
38- Sellers B.A., Smeda R.J., and Johnson W.G. 2003. Diurnal fluctuations and leaf angle reduce glufosinate efficacy. Weed Technology 17(2): 302–306.
39- Shaw D.R., Morris W.H., Webster E.P., and Smith D.B. 2000. Effects of spray volume and droplet size on herbicide deposition and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control. Weed Technology 14(2): 321–326.
40- Sikkema P.H., Brown L., Shropshire C., Spieser H., and Soltani N. 2008. Flat fan and air induction nozzles affect soybean herbicide efficacy. Weed Biology and Management 8(1): 31–38.
41- Skuterud R., Bjugstad N., Tyldum A., and Terresen K.S. 1998. Effect of herbicides applied at different times of the day. Crop Protection 17(1): 41–46.
42- Smith J.M., and Sagar G.R. 1966. A re-examination of the influence of light and darkness on the long-distance transport of diquat in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Weed Research 6(4): 314–321.
43- Soar C.J., Karotam J., Preston C., and Powles S.B. 2003. Reduced paraquat translocation in paraquat resistant Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns is a consequence of the primary resistance mechanism, not the cause. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 76(3): 91–98.
44- Stewart C.L., Nurse R.E., and Sikkema P.H. 2009. Time of day impacts POST weed control in corn. Weed Technology 23(3): 346–355.
45- Stopps G.J., Nurse R.E., and Sikkema P.H. 2013. The effect of time of day on the activity of postemergence soybean herbicides. Weed Technology 27(4): 690–695.
46- Waltz A.L., Martin A.R., Roeth F.W., and Lindquist J.L. 2004. Glyphosate efficacy on velvetleaf varies with application time of day. Weed Technology 18(4): 931–939.
47- Wersal R.M., Madsen J.D., Massey J.H., Robles W., and Cheshier J.C. 2010. Comparison of daytime and night-time applications of diquat and carfentrazone-ethyl for control of parrotfeather and eurasian watermilfoil. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 48: 56–58.
48- Wichert R.A., Bozsa R., Talbert R.E., and Oliver L.R. 1992. Temperature and relative humidity effects on diphenyl ether herbicides. Weed Technology 6(1): 19–24.
49- Wills G.D., and McWhorter C.G. 1981. Effect of environment on the translocation and toxicity of acifluorfen to showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis). Weed Science 29(4): 397–401.
50- Zhang J., Zheng L., Jäck O., Yan D., Zhang Z., Gerhards R., and Ni H. 2013. Efficacy of four post-emergence herbicides applied at reduced doses on weeds in summer maize (Zea mays L.) fields in North China Plain. Crop Protection 52: 26–32.