The Use of Several Soil Amendments to Control the Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in the West of Guilan Province

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gilan, Rasht, Iran


Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important soil-borne pathogens that cause serious economic damage to orchards and agricultural products. Over 2000 plant species are attacked by root-knot nematodes. Root-Knot Nematodes limit the absorption of water and nutrients, and create favorable conditions for infection by root-pathogenic microorganisms in many crops, resulting in the formation of giant cells. Due to their high reproductive rate, RKN management is challenging. Meloidogyne species can be controlled using various methods, including agricultural practices, resistant cultivars, and chemical nematicides, which are easier and more effective to use. The use of chemical nematicides has decreased due to health and environmental concerns. The agricultural community needs new and alternative management strategies, especially those that are environmentally acceptable. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several combinations of chicken manure, liquid chicken manure, vermicompost, vermiwash, cabbage and broccoli waste in the management of root-knot nematodes in kiwi orchards.
Materials and Methods
Inspection and sampling were carried out in kiwi orchards in the western province of Guilan (Talesh and Astara) to determine the infected orchards for planned treatments. The nematode species were identified by using morphological characteristics of perineal pattern, and second-stage juveniles. Three orchards located in Asalem, Lisar, and Lavandevil were selected based on their high similarity in terms of contamination level and other characteristics such as tree age, row distance, irrigation, slope, and soil type. Nine treatments were applied using a complete randomized block design for three months. The treatments consisted of 40 tons of chicken manure, vermicompost, and cabbage waste per hectare, planting of broccoli, vermiwash, and liquid chicken manure (one liter per tree). Ragbi was also used as a nematicide at a rate of 10 g/m3 alongside other treatments. For the application of chicken manure, vermicompost, and cabbage waste, the area of the plant's nutrient root expansion was first determined. Then, the desired amount of treatments was mixed with the soil at a depth of 3 to 30 centimeters. After preparing the designated plots, broccoli seedlings were planted around the damaged trees.
Results and Discussion
Based on the morphological and histological characteristics, the studied species was identified as M. incognita. The results showed that all treatments had a significant difference compared to the control and were able to reduce nematode infection indices. The best treatment in nematode control was chicken manure which decreased the number of galls, the number of egg masses, the number of larvae and eggs per gram of root, the number of second stage juveniles per hundred grams of soil and the reproduction factor by 86.7%, 76.7%, 89.8%, 90.3% and 91%, respectively, compared to the control. The results revealed that vermicompost was the least effective treatment which reduced the number of galls and egg masses per root system, the number of larvae and eggs per gram of root, the number of second stage juveniles per hundred grams of soil, and the reproduction factor by 78.8%, 36%, 65.4%, 64.7% and 65.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The results suggest that the use of organic amendments as an alternative to chemical nematicides can be effective in reducing nematode populations in kiwi orchards. In addition, the use of organic amendments may improve soil fertility and plant growth, which can have a positive impact on overall crop yield and quality.
Based on the findings of this study, all treatments were successful in reducing nematode indices. However, comparisons of the treatments showed that chicken manure had the most significant effect in reducing the indices compared to other treatments. Following chicken manure, vermiwash and liquid chicken manure treatments were the next most effective. Additionally, all treatments successfully increased production. These results may be attributed to effective nematode control and improved plant nutrition. Application of chicken manure, vermicompost, and vegetable waste as organic amendments have been reported to have positive effects on soil health and plant growth, as they improve soil fertility and increase the population of beneficial soil microorganisms. In this study, these organic amendments were effective in reducing nematode infection indicators, such as the number of galls, egg masses, and larvae per gram of root, as well as the reproduction factor. It's important to conduct further research to confirm the effectiveness of these treatments in different environmental conditions and on different crops. It's also important to consider the potential for nutrient leaching and other environmental impacts associated with the use of organic amendments.




Main Subjects

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