Competition between Mungbean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) and Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) under Dust Conditions

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Ecology of Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

2 Dept. Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

3 Visiting Teacher, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran


The dust storm has become a regional phenomenon due to occurrence of severe droughts. Dust storms, recognized as significant atmospheric phenomena and associated with climate change, exert detrimental effects on plant growth and crop yield. This study aimed to assess the impact of soil dust on the competition between mung bean and red-root pigweed.
Materials and Methods
An experiment was carried out at the research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture at Ilam University during spring and summer 2022. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications. The experimental treatments were included five replacement ratios of mung bean and redroot pigweed (planting patterns 75% mung bean + 25% pigweed; 50% mung bean + 50% pigweed; 25% mung bean + 75% pigweed; monoculture of mung bean and redroot pigweed) and dust were at two levels (0 and 60 gr m-3).
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the dust causes symptoms of necrosis and leaf burn in mung bean and pigweed. The highest amount of carotenoids (3.59 mg g-1 fresh weight of leaf) was observed in the planting pattern of 75% mung bean + 25% pigweed under no dust conditions. The monoculture of pigweed under dust conditions had the lowest amount of carotenoids. Dust reduced the amount of total chlorophyll, leaf relative water content, plant height and length of inflorescence in Pigweed plant by 23.4, 12, 14.7 and 12%, respectively. Dust caused a decrease in the leaf area in pigweed in different patterns of intercropping. Photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, leaf area, plant height, number of pods per plant and number of seed per plant in mung bean were respectively decreased by 31.2, 24.9, 28.8, 17.7, 29.7 and 36.7% due to dust application. The highest photosynthesis rate in mungbean (5.28 µmol of CO2 m-2 s-1), leaf area (129.1 cm2) and the number of seeds per plant (13 seed plant-1) were obtained from monoculture of mungbean. However, they were decreased under competition with pigweed. The biological yield in mungbean and pigweed under dust condition were, respectively, 42.6 and 16.8 % lower than that of no dust condition. Under dust conditions, the grain yield of mung bean and pigweed were, respectively, 32.8% and 42.6% lower than that of no dust condition. The actual yield of mung bean under competition with pigweed was lower than the predicted yield indicating the higher competitive effects of pigweed. In all planting patterns with and without dust, the total actual yields were higher than the predicted yield indicating a negative interference effects for mung bean. The relative total yield in most of the planting patterns was greater than one, suggesting increase in the partial relative yield and reduction of intra-species competition in pigweed. The negative effects of pigweed on mungbean were more visible in high densities of pigweed, which also showed a higher positive dominance index. The competition index showed a value greater than one for the pigweed indicating the greater competitive ability of this weed compared to mung bean. Under both conditions, with and without dust, pigweed exhibited the highest relative density coefficient in all planting patterns, establishing itself as the dominant plant compared to mung bean, which had a relative density coefficient less than one. The competition index for mung bean, across all intercropping patterns, was also less than one, indicating its lower competitive ability compared to pigweed. Interspecific competition with pigweed resulted in an actual yield loss for mung bean, highlighting that interspecific competition in mung bean surpasses intraspecific competition. Conversely, pigweed showed a greater susceptibility to intraspecific competition.
The results showed that pigweed has a higher competitive ability and by increased exploitation of environmental resources, cause a decrease in mung bean yield. Despite the high competition ability of pigweed, soil dust cause reduction in its growth and biomass.


Main Subjects


    1. Abbasnasab, Z., Abedi, M., & Sadati, S.A. (2019). Effects of dust on some morphological and physiological parameters in Bromus tomentellus and Medicago sativa. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 26(1), 214-225. (In Persian with English abstract).
    2. Abu-Romman, S., & Alzubi, J. (2015). Effects of cement dust on the physiological activities of Arabidopsis thaliana. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 10(4), 157-164.
    3. Addo, M.A., Darko, E.O., Gordon, C., & Nyarko, B.J.B. (2013). Contamination of soils and loss of productivity of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) caused by cement dust pollution. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment (IJRCE), 3(1), 272-282.
    4. Agegnehu, G., Ghizaw, A., & Sinebo, W. (2006). Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy, 25(3), 202-207.‏
    5. Aguyoh, J.N., & Masiunas, J.B. (2003). Interference dust of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) with snap beans. Weed Science, 51(2), 202-207.‏[0171:IOLCDS]2.0.CO;2
    6. Akbari, S. (2011). Dust storms, sources in the Middle East and economic model for survey its impacts. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12), 227-233.
    7. Alavi, M., & Karimi, N. (2015). Effect of the simulated dust storm stress on the chlorophyll a fluorescence, Chlorophyll content, Flavonoids and phenol compounds in medicinal plant Thymus vulgaris Journal of Plant Process and Function, 4(13), 17-23. (In Persian with English abstract).
    8. Arnon, I. (1975). Physiological principles of dry land crop production. Physiological Aspects of Dryland Farming. US Gupta, ed.‏
    9. Asadi-Sabzi, M., Keshtkar, K., & Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A. (2019). Effect of dust on the growth and physiological traits of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum [K. Koch] Thell.) in the greenhouse conditions. Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 15(1), 29-39. (In Persian with English abstract).
    10. Burgos, N.R., Norman, R.J., Gealy, D.R., & Black, H. (2006). Competitive N uptake between rice and weedy rice. Field Crops Research, 99(2), 96-105.‏
    11. Chaturvedi, R.K., Prasad, S., Rana, S., Obaidullah, S.M., Pandey, V., & Singh, H. (2013). Effect of dust load on the leaf attributes of the tree species growing along the roadside. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(1), 383-391.‏
    12. Chauhan, A., & Joshi, P.C. (2010). Effect of ambient air pollutants on wheat and mustard crops growing in the vicinity of urban and industrial areas. New York Science Journal, 3(2), 52-60.‏‏
    13. Cong, W.F., Hoffland, E., Li, L., Six, J., Sun, J.H., Bao, X.G., & Van Der Werf, W. (2015). Intercropping enhances soil carbon and nitrogen. Global Change Biology, 21(4), 1715-1726.
    14. Dalish, H., & Poulton, P. (2011). Sustainable intensification of radi cropping in south of Bangladesh using wheat and mungbean. Applied Agronomy, 18, 202-211.‏
    15. Dhima, K.V., Lithourgidis, A.S., Vasilakoglou, I.B., & Dordas, C.A. (2007). Competition indices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crops Research, 100(2-3), 249-256.‏ 1016/j.fcr.2006.07.008
    16. Ding, G., Liu, X., Herbert, S., Novak, J., Amarasiriwardena, D., & Xing, B. (2006). Effect of cover crop management on soil organic matter. Geoderma, 130(3-4), 229-239.‏
    17. Fateminejhad, P., Lary-Yazdy, H., & Rafiee, M. (2017). Effect of aerosols and drought stresses on some physiological traits of Mungbean (Vigna radiata). Applied Research in Field, 30(2), 19-30. (In Persian with English abstract).
    18. Ghasemi, E., Taab, A., & Radicetti, E. (2020). Study the effect of soil dust on the competitiveness between bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Kosha) and Chenolodium album L. and Echinochloa cruss-galli (L.) P.Beauv. Environmental Sciences, 18(2), 219-236. (In Persian with English abstract).
    19. Lithourgidis, A.S., Vlachostergios, D.N., Dordas, C.A., & Damalas, C.A. (2011). Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea–cereal intercropping systems. European Journal of Agronomy, 34(4), 287-294.‏
    20. Liu, T., Song, F., Liu, S., & Zhu, X. (2011). Canopy structure, light interception, and photosynthetic characteristics under different narrow-wide planting patterns in maize at silking stage. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(4), 1249-1261.‏
    21. Moradi, A., Taheri Abkenar, K., Afshar Mohammadian, M., & Shabanian, N. (2017). Effects of dust on forest tree health in Zagros oak forests. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189, 1-11.‏
    22. Pandita, A.K., Shah, M.H., & Bali, A.S. (2000). Effect of row ratio in cereal-legume intercropping systems on productivity and competition functions under Kashmir conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 45(1), 48-53.‏
    23. Rahetlah, V.B., Randrianaivoarivony, J.M., Razafimpamoa, L.H., & Ramalanjaona, V.L. (2010). Effects of seeding rates on forage yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa) vetch (Vicia sativa L.) mixtures under irrigated conditions of Madagascar. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 10(10), 4257-4267.
    24. Ranjbar, S., Ghobadi, M.A., & Ghobadi, M. (2021). Influence of dust deposition and light intensity on yield and some agro-physiologic characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in dry conditions. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 12(2), 69-84. (In Persian with English abstract).
    25. Ritchie, S.W., Nguyen, H.T., & Holaday, A.S. (1990). Leaf water content and gas‐exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science, 30(1), 105-111.‏
    26. Ronald, A.E. (2000). (Amaranthus retroflexus)/pigweed. U. S. Department of Agriculture, New York.
    27. Saberali, S.F., & Mohammadi, K. (2015). Organic amendments application down weight the negative effects of weed competition on the soybean yield. Ecological Engineering, 82, 451-458.
    28. Salama, H.M., Al-Rumaih, M.M., & Al-Dosary, M.A. (2011). Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia plant. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 18(3), 227-237.‏
    29. Seyyednejad, S.M., & Koochak, H. (2011). A study on air pollution-induced biochemical alterations in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(3), 601-606.‏
    30. Sharifi Kaliani, F., Babaei, S., & Zafar Sohrabpour, Y. (2021). Study of the effects of dusts on the morphological and physiological traits of some crops. Journal of Plant Production, 28(3), 205-220. (In Persian with English abstract).
    31. Sharma, S.B., & Baidyanath, K. (2015). Effects of stone crusher dust pollution on growth performance and yield status of gram (Cicer arietinum). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(3), 971-979.‏
    32. Singh, S.N., & Verma, A. (2007). Phytoremediation of air pollutants: a review. Environmental Bioremediation Technologies, 293-314.‏
    33. Soltani-Gerdefaramarzi, S., Ghasemi, M., & Ghaneie-Bafghi, M.J. (2021). Spatial and temporal variability in the dust deposition rate of Yazd city and its relationship with some climatic parameters. Journal of Natural Environment, 73(4), 701-714. (In Persian with English abstract).
    34. Somta, P., Prathet, P., Kongjaimun, A., & Srinives, P. (2014). Dissecting quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits responding to iron deficeincy in Mungbean [Vigna Radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Journal of Agricultural Science, 36(2), 101-111.‏
    35. Squires, V.R. (2016). Dust Particles and Aerosols: Impact on Biota “A Review” (Part I). Journal of Rangeland Science, 6(1), 82-91.
    36. Takashi, H. (1995). Studies on the effects of dust on photosynthesis of plant leaves [in Japanese], laboratory, of environmental control in biology, college of agriculture. Environmental Pollution, 89(3), 255-261.
    37. Ulrichs, C., Welke, B., Mucha-Pelzer, T., Goswami, A., & Mewis, I. (2008). Effect of solid particulate matter deposits on vegetation: a review. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2(1), 56-62.‏
    38. Wahla, I.H., Ahmad, R.I.A.Z., Ehsanullah, A.A., & Jabbar, A.B.D.U.L. (2009). Competitive functions of components crops in some barley based intercropping systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(5), 69-72.
    39. Wang, X., Oenema, O., Hoogmoed, W., Perdok, U., & Cai, D. (2006). Dust storm erosion and its impact on soil carbon and nitrogen losses in northern China. Catena, 66, 221-227.
    40. Willey, R. (1979). Intercropping-its importance and its research needs. Part I. Competition and yield advantages. In Field Crop Abstracts, 32, 1-10.
    41. Yang, B.; Bruning, A.; Zhang, Z.; Dong, Z., & Espe, J. (2007). Dust storm frequency and its relation to climate changes in northern China during the past 1000 years. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 9288-9299.
    42. Yang, F., Fan, Y., Wu, X., Cheng, Y., Liu, Q., Feng, L., & Yang, W. (2018). Auxin-to-gibberellin ratio as a signal for light intensity and quality in regulating soybean growth and matter partitioning. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 56-68.
    43. Yilmaz, S., Atak, M., & Erayman, M. (2008) .Identification of advantages of maize-legume intercropping over solitary cropping through competition indices in the East Mediterranean region. Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Forestry, 32, 111-119.
    44. Zhang, X.N.A.U., Huang, G.N.A.U., Bian, X.N.A.U., & Zhao, Q.C.A.O. (2013). Effects of root interaction and nitrogen fertilization on the chlorophyll content, root activity, photosynthetic characteristics of intercropped soybean and microbial quantity in the rhizosphere. Plant, Soil and Environment, 59(2), 80-88.‏
    45. Zia-Khan, S., Spreer, W., Pengnian, Y., Zhao, X., Othmanli, H., He, X., & Muller, J. (2015). Effect of dust deposition on stomatal conductance and leaf temperature of cotton in northwest China. Water, 7(1), 116-131.‏