عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important pests of the tomato plant, which belongs to the order lepidoptera and the family Gelechiidae, is the tomato leaf miner. The tomato leaf miner, scientifically named Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), was first described and reported in Peru in 1917 (EPPO, 2005). After reaching Spain in 2002, the pest spread rapidly to other European and North African countries, and eventually to Middle Eastern countries, including Iran.
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 6 treatments (5 insecticide treatments and one control treatment) and with three replications in tomato fields (private farm) of Kermanshah, Markazi and Hormozgan provinces. Each experimental plot consisted of 5 planting rows, each of which was 10 meters long and 5 meters wide (plot dimensions were 50 square meters). The distance between the plots was at least 5 meters. Fertilization and weed control operations were performed according to local customs. Plants were inspected daily and as soon as the economic loss threshold (4 to 5 larvae per plant) was reached, foliar application was performed. For spraying, a back sprayer with a conical nozzle was used after calibration. Sampling was performed one day before spraying and 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after spraying. For this purpose, 10 plants were randomly selected from each plot and two leaflets were taken from each plant from the semi-terminal leaves of the plant, which were transferred to separate nylon bags by mentioning the name of the treatment and repeated.. The percentage of insecticide effect was calculated using Henderson-Tilton formula. The means were compared by Tukey test using Ver 9.1 software (SAS Institute, 2001).
In order to introduce new and effective insecticides to control this pest, the present study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 6 treatments and 3 replications in tomato fields of three provinces of Hormozgan, Kermanshah and Markazi and the effect of, Tetraniliprole (Vayego SC200) insecticides with two concentrations of 250 and 350 ml / ha Indoxacarb EC 15% at a rate of 250 ml / ha, Flubendiamide WG20% at a rate of 250 gr/ ha Lufenuron + Emamectin benzoateWG 50% 100 gr/ ha on mortality This pest was examined. The results of this study showed that on the 14 days after spraying, Tetraniliprol 350 ml / ha with 73.02 percent efficiency, in Markazi province, with 82.74 percent efficiency, in Kermanshah province, and with 82.17 percent efficiency in Hormozgan province had higher efficiency than other treatments. Therefore, a concentration of 350 ml/ha of the insecticide Tetraniliprol is effective and can be recommended for the control of tomato leaf miner in fields.
In a study of the effects of eight insecticides, chloropyrifosmethyl, lambdacy halothrin, imidaclopride, abamectin, chlorfenapyr, emamectinbenzoate and chlorantraniliprole on tomato leaf miner in field conditions were investigated. The results showed that all the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the average insect population and the reduction of the percentage of infection in the tomato field. However, the greatest effect in controlling this insect was obtained with the use of abamectin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole (Sallam, 2015). Another study looked at the effects of a number of biocides on the pest. All of the studied toxins caused mortality of T. absoluta larvae, but the effect of Azadirachta indica and Allium sativum extracts as well as Beauveria bassiana was reported to be more than 70%. However, these treatments were statistically significantly different from conventional insecticides and the highest product with marketable value was obtained in Tetraniliprole (Wiego) and Coragen treatments (Shiberu and Getu, 2018). Evaluated the efficacy of 7 insecticides on tomato leaf miner in vitro and showed that the insecticides Spinosad, chlorantraniliprole + Abamectin and Indoxacarb resulted in 100% mortality in all populations. These results were similar to the present study.