Occurrence of Major Viruses in Wheat in Khuzestan Province

Document Type : Short Research


1 Plant Disease, University of Ilam, Ilam, Iran

2 PhD. Plant Virology from Shiraz University. College of Agriculture.

3 Agronomy, University of Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Weed Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

5 Plant Disease, University of Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran


 Dwarfing, yellowing and yellow mosaic are the most common symptoms observed in cereal fields. Various pathogens such as viruses are involved in development of these symptoms. Over 30 different plant viruses are known to infect wheat. Among them, Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) are important viral diseases around the world. Little comprehensive information on the distribution of these viruses is available in Khuzestan Province, Iran. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of WDV, BYDV-MAV and WSMV in the major wheat-producing regions in Khuzestan province.
Material and Methods
 A survey of wheat fields showing yellowing, dwarfing and mosaic symptoms was conducted during 2020-21 crop season. The six counties in Khuzestan province were covered in the survey include Elhai, Mollasani, Shadegan, Ramhormoz, Shush, and Andimeshk. Plant leaves exhibiting viral disease symptoms were placed separately in plastic bags and quickly transported to the laboratory. Five hundred seventy (570) wheat samples were collected. These samples were tested by Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antibodies of WSMV (from Shiraz Virology Research Center), BYDV-MAV (Bioreba, Switzerland) and WDV (DSMZ, Germany).
Results and Discussion
 The results showed that three tested viruses were present in Khuzestan province. Among the tested viruses, WDV was the most commonly detected (30% of the 570 wheat samples), followed by BYDV-MAV (29%) and WSMV (5%). WDV was found in all counties except Ramhormoz (Table 1). In Elhai county, 28 of the 53 tested samples were infected with WDV, which was the highest infection ratio (52.8%). Symptoms caused by BYDV-MAV are severe dwarfism and yellowing (Figure 1), and it is impossible to distinguish between WDV and BYDV-MAV viruses. The virus was the most widespread and was found in all counties (Table 1). The infection ratio in the six counties were 35% in Elhai, 27% in Mollasani, 10% in Ramhormoz, 25% in Shush, 11% in Andimeshk and 28% in Shadegan. In Ramhormoz, BYDV-MAV existed only in 8 out of 78 tested samples. Selected plants may be shortened due to lack of physiological factors or maybe infected by other strains of the virus. It is recommended that the occurrence of other virus species, including the dominant BYDV-PAV species, be investigated. The mixed infection with WDV+BYDV-MAV was detected in 9% of tested plants. However, the severity of the plant infection was similar to that of plants infected with any of the viruses. WDV was introduced as the predominant virus in wheat fields infected with yellowing and dwarfism in Khuzestan in 2020-2021. Of course, this does not mean that most of the symptoms dwarfing and yellowing in wheat are related to this virus. Studies in Germany also show that grain infection ratio with WDV and BYDV has been different between different years, so that in 1998-1998 WDV was predominant, while in 2005-2001 BYDV was predominant. WSMV is less common than other viruses. It was not found in Shadegan, Ramhormoz, and Mollasani counties. The highest incidence of the virus was observed in Andimeshk county. 13 of the 111 tested samples were infected with the virus (Table 1). Considering that in recent years corn cultivation has been developed as summer crops in Andimeshk and Dezful counties, the corn plant probably provides suitable conditions for strengthening the source of virus and its vector. As a result, crop damage caused by the virus will increase in these farms. In Khuzestan, wheat is cultivated in December, when the temperature is colder than other seasons, and the conditions for mite activity are not completely favorable, and as a result, the incidence of WSMV is lower. It is possible that cultivated wheat cultivars are resistant to mites. Since a positive correlation has been reported between mite resistance and virus resistance, this may play a role in reducing the incidence of the virus.
 In this study, the distribution of major wheat viruses in six counties of the province was first investigated. The results showed that wheat dwarf virus and barley yellow dwarf viruses infect high percentages of wheat fields. Considering the important of Khuzestan province in the country’s self-sufficiency in wheat production, the available information about these viruses will cause extensive research in the field of virus damage assessment and additional molecular studies to be on the agenda.


Main Subjects

1-Achon, M.A., Serrano, L., Ratti, C., & Rubies-Autonell, C. (2006). First detection of wheat dwarf virus in barley in Spain associated with an outbreak of barley yellow dwarf. Journal of Plant Disease 90(7): 907-976.
2-Afsharifar, A., Masumi, M., Sadeghi, M.S., Yassaie, M., & Esmailzadeh, A. (2004). Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf viruses in Iran. In: Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Tabriz, p 76. (In Persian with English abstract)
3-Ákos, M., Richard, G., Mária, P., & Péter, F. (2002). Multiple virus infection of wheat in South Hungary. Cereal Research Communications 30(3): 329-334.
5-Awika, J.M. (2011). Major cereal grains production and use around the world. In Advances in cereal science: implications to food processing and health promotion (pp. 1-13). American Chemical Society.
6-Behjatnia, S.A.A., Afsharifar, A.R., Tahan, V., Motlagh, M.H., Gandomani, O.E., Niazi, A., & Izadpanah, K. (2011). Widespread occurrence and molecular characterization of Wheat dwarf virus in Iran. Australasian Plant Pathology 40(1): 12-19.
7-Bendahmane, M., Schalk, H.J., & Gronenborn, B. (1995). Identification and characterization of wheat dwarf virus from France using a rapid method for geminivirus DNA preparation. Phytopathology 85(11): 1449-1455.
8-Chrpová, J., Veškrna, O., Palicová, J., & Kundu, J.K. (2020). The evaluation of wheat cultivar resistance and yield loss thresholds in response to barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV infection. Agriculture 10(1): 20.
9-Chuang, W.P., Rojas, L.M.A., Khalaf, L.K., Zhang, G., Fritz, A.K., Whitfield, A.E., & Smith, C.M. (2017). Wheat genotypes with combined resistance to wheat curl mite, wheat streak mosaic virus, wheat mosaic virus, and triticum mosaic virus. Journal of Economic Entomology 110(2): 711-718.
10-Foolad, P., & Izedpanah, K. (1986). Identification of wheat streak mosaic virus in Iran. Iran Agricultural Research 5(2): 73-84.
11-Hadi, B.A.R., Langham, M.A.C., Osborne, L., & Tilmon, K.J. (2011). Wheat streak mosaic virus on wheat: biology and management. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 2(1): 1-5.
12-Izadpanah, K., & Lister, R.M. (1991). Identification of barley yellow dwarf virus serotypes in Iran. In: Proceedings of the 10th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Kerman. (In Persian with English abstract)
13-Izadpanah, K., & Kamran, R. (1995). Viral diseases of wheat in Eghlid region of Fars. In: Proceedings of the 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Karaj, p29. (In Persian with English abstract)
14-Jarošová, J., Chrpová, J., Šíp, V., & Kundu, J. K. (2013). A comparative study of the Barley yellow dwarf virus species PAV and PAS: distribution, accumulation and host resistance. Plant Pathology 62(2): 436-443.
15-Khine, M.O., Michaela, B., Yan, L.I.U., Kundu, J.K., & Wang, X.F. (2020). Molecular diversity of barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV from China and the Czech Republic. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 19(11): 2736-2745.
16-Koenig, R. (1981). Indirect ELISA methods for the broad specificity detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology 55(1): 53-62.
17-Liu, Y., Khine, M.O., Zhang, P., Fu, Y., & Wang, X. (2020). Incidence and distribution of insect-transmitted cereal viruses in wheat in China from 2007 to 2019. Plant disease 104(5): 1407-1414.
18- Lotfipour, M., Behjat Nia, A.A., Afshari Far, A.R., & Izadpanah, K.A. (2013). Distribution and partial biological characterization of wheat and barley strains of wheat dwarf virus in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 49(1): 17-31.
19-Mathre, D.E. (1997). Compendium of barley diseases. D. E. Mathre (Ed.). St. Paul: APS press.
20-Martin, T.J. (1978). Procedures for evaluating wheat streak mosaic virus resistance [Aceria tulipae as insect vector]. Plant Disease Reporter 62(2): 1062-1066.
21-Manurung, B., Witsack, W., Mehner, S., Grüntzig, M., & Fuchs, E. (2005). Studies on biology and population dynamics of the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus Dahlb. (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) as vector of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 112: 497-507.
22-Masumi, M., Izadpanah, K., Joukar, L., & Kheradnam, M. (2001). Assessment of losses by wheat streak mosaic virus. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 37(3-4): 221-232. (In Persian with English abstract)
 23-Masumi, M., Zare, M., Rastgar, M., & Izadpanah, K. (2006). Variation of Iranian isolates of wheat streak mosaic virus based on CP-UTR sequence analysis. In: Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. Karaj, p 36. (In Persian with English abstract)
24-Najar, A., Makkouk, K.M., Boudhir, H., Othman, F.B., Zarouk, R., Bessai, R., & Kumari, S.G. (2000). Viral diseases of cultivated legume and cereal crops in Tunisia. Viral Diseases of Cultivated Legume and Cereal Crops in Tunisia 1000-1010.
25-Oswald, J.W., & Houston, B.E. (1953). The yellow-dwarf virus disease of cereal crops. Phytopathology 43(3): 128-136.
26-Parizipour, M.G., Behjatnia, S.A.A., Afsharifar, A., & Izadpanah, K. (2016). Natural hosts and efficiency of leafhopper vector in transmission of Wheat dwarf virus. Journal of Plant Pathology 98(3): 483-492.
27-Parizipour, M.H.G., Ramazani, L., & Sardrood, B.P. (2018). Temperature affected transmission, symptom development and accumulation of Wheat dwarf virus. Plant Protection Science 54(4): 222-233.
28- Erlund, P. (2007). Experiences of Wheat dwarf virus in Finland 2004-2007. NJF Report 3(5): 33.
29-Rabenstein, F., Sukhacheva, E., Habekuß, A., & Schubert, J. (2005). Differentiation of Wheat dwarf virus isolates from wheat, triticale and barley by means of a monoclonal antibody. In: Proceedings of the X Conference on Viral Diseases of Gramineae in Europe, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, pp. 12-14.
30-Rastgou, M., Khatabi, B., Kvarnheden, A., & Izadpanah, K. (2005). Relationships of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV from Iran with viruses of the family Luteoviridae. European Journal of Plant Pathology 113(3): 321-326.
31-Rouhani, S.F., Yassaie, M., & Sharzei, A. (2015). Effects of dual infections of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) on WSMV titer, symptom severity and some yield components of wheat. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 51(2): 141-161.
32-Sahragard, N., Izadpanah, K., Babaee, G., Eshaghe, R., Afsharifar, A.R., & Masumi, M. (2010). Integrated management of viral diseases of winter wheat in Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 46(2): 135-152.
33- Singh, K., Wegulo, S.N., Skoracka, A., & Kundu, J.K. (2018). Wheat streak mosaic virus: a century old virus with rising importance worldwide. Molecular Plant Pathology 19(9): 2193-2206.
34-Smith, H.C. (1963). Aphid species in relation to the transmission of barley yellow dwarf virus in Canada. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 6(1): 1-12.
35-Vacke, J. (1961). Wheat dwarf virus disease. Biologia Plantarum 3(3): 228-233.
36- Xie, J., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Peng, Y., & Zhou, G. (2007). First report of the occurrence of Wheat dwarf virus in wheat in China. Plant Disease 91(1): 111-117.
37-Wang, Y., Mao, Q., Liu, W., Mar, T., Wei, T., Liu, Y., & Wang, X. (2014). Localization and distribution of Wheat dwarf virus in its vector leafhopper, Psammotettix alienus. Phytopathology 104(8): 897-904.