The Effect of Simultaneous Application of Trichoderma harzianum and Plant Mulch on Yield and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat (cv. Narin)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Birjand University

3 Assistant Professor of Agriculture Department, Birjand University

4 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture, Birjand University


Introduction: Trichoderma species are the main causes of decomposition and decay of agricultural residues and are considered for the control of plant pathogens, especially fungi and nematodes in the world. Trichoderma species have the ability to produce microbial enzymes such as xylanases, which are used in the paper and food processing industries. These enzymes improve the digestibility of nutrients in certain diets in ruminants and poultry, where there is no digestive enzyme that can digest the complex carbohydrates in the cell wall. These enzymes have the power to digest and hydrolyze these substances. South khorasan province due to hot and dry climate, water shortage and successive droughts, saline water in agriculture, pests and diseases, soil with low fertility for planting irrigated wheat needs cultivars resistant to these stresses. Narin cultivar is the latest cultivar introduced for this province. The characteristic of this cultivar are more compatibility with salinity stress areas and relative maturity with other wheat cultivars.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of simultaneous use of Trichoderma harzianum and plant mulch on yield and physiological characteristics of wheat of Narin cultivar and its effect on the interaction of this cultivar with Alternaria alternata in 2019-2020 in Birjand Faculty of Agriculture Research Farm an experiment asComplete randomization block design was performed with four replications. Treatments included control (without application of Trichoderma), Trichoderma as soil application, Trichoderma as leaf application in granulation stage, Trichoderma application as soil and leaf application in granulation stage. In the granulation stage, each experimental unit was divided into two parts and Alternaria leaf spot pathogen treatment at two levels (inoculation in the granulation stage and without inoculation) was considered as a sub-factor in the experiment. The purpose of using the pathogen treatment was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma in the presence of the pathogen. This fungus was prepared from the archives of the Plant Pathology Laboratory of Birjand University of Agriculture, which had previously been isolated from the wheat of this province. To inoculate this pathogen, a suspension with a concentration of 106 spores per ml of A. alternata was used from a 7-day fungus colony on PDA medium and its effect on physiological traits (including total phenol, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll) were investigated. To investigate the effect of different applications of Trichoderma on Narin cultivar from another part of the plot without pathogen treatment was analysis of growth traits, yield and yield components including chlorophyll index, including green and dry stem height, spike length, weight, grain yield, biological yield, number and weight of grains per spike, spikes number and weight per unit area were measured.
Results and Discussion: The aim of using pathogen treatment was to evaluate the biological control of Alternaria wheat leaf spot agent by T. harzianum in different methods by using Trichoderma in the presence of Alternaria in comparison with the absence of Alternaria and its effect on physiological traits (including total phenol, chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll) were evaluated. No symptoms of necrosis or leaf chlorosis were observed after pathogen inoculation. Analysis of physiological traits (total phenol, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll) showed that only the simple effect of inoculation or non-inoculation of Alternaria with Trichoderma significantly different (P <0.05) in terms of total phenol content. Due to the presence of Alternaria as a pathogen, it may lead to a reaction of the plant's defense system, and Trichoderma can also increase phenolic compounds to counteract the pathogen. Analysis of growth traits, yield and yield components showed that Trichoderma treatment had no significant effect on any of them.
Conclusion: This study, for the first time showed that A. alternata can cause disease on wheat Narin cultivar. Also, this research studied the effect of T. harzianum on physiological and functional characteristics of wheat Narin cultivar and results demonstrated that T. harzianum can have little effect on these characteristics of Narin cultivar. Concomitant use of Trichoderma in soil and leaves had a greater effect than separate application in roots or leaves. Also, according to other research, the effect of trichoderma varies depending on the environmental conditions including temperature and humidity, soil texture and structure and the type of wheat cultivar.


Main Subjects

  1. Amini A., Akbari-Moghaddam H., and Afyoni D., Saberi H., and Tabatabai MH. 2018. Narin, a new irrigated wheat cultivar with high adaptability and yield, suitable for areas with soil and water salinity stress in temperate and temperate warm climates of the country. Scientific-Extension Journal of Research Findings in Crops and Horticultural Plants 2(1): 135-147. (In Persian with English abstract)
  2. Amini Y. 2014. Taxonomic study of Trichoderma species in South Khorasan province. The thesis for Ms.c Degree of Plant Pathology. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
  3. Aulakh MS., Manchanda JS., Garg AK., Kumar S., Dercon G., and Nguyen ML. 2012. Crop production and nutrient use efficiency of conservation agriculture for soybean–wheat rotation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northwestern India. Soil and Tillage Research 120: 50-60.
  4. Beg Q., Kapoor M., Mahajan L., and Hoondal 2001. Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications: a review. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 56(3-4): 326-338.
  5. Benhamou N., and Chet I. 1996. Parasitism of sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii by Trichoderma harzianum ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the interaction. Phytopathology 86: 4: 405-416.
  6. Cordo CA., Monaco CI., Segarra CI., Simon MR., Mansilla AY., Perello AE., and Conde RD. 2007. Trichoderma as elicitors of wheat plant defense responses against Septoria tritici. Biocontrol Science and Technology 17(7): 687-698.
  7. Donjadee S., and Tingsanchali T. 2016. Soil and water conservation on steep slopes by mulching using rice straw and vetiver grass clippings. Agriculture and Natural Resources 50(1): 75-79.
  8. Fischer Santiveri F., and Vidal 2002. Crop rotation, tillage and crop residue management for wheat and maize in the sub-humid tropical highlands: I. Wheat and legume performance. Field Crops Research 79: 2-3: 107-122.
  9. Fu J., Liu Z., Li Z., Wang Y., and Yang K. 2017. Alleviation of the effects of saline-alkaline stress on maize seedlings by regulation of active oxygen metabolism by Trichoderma asperellum. PLoS One 12(6): e0179617.
  10. Gangwar K., Singh K., Sharma S., and Tomar O. 2006. Alternative tillage and crop residue management in wheat after rice in sandy loam soils of Indo-Gangetic plains. Soil and Tillage Research 88: 1-2: 242-252.
  11. Ghorbanli M., and Kiapour A. Copper-induced changes on pigments and activity of non-enzimatic and enzymatic defence systems in Portulaca oleracea L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 28(2): 235-247. (In Persian with English abstract)
  12. Harman GE., Howell CR., Viterbo A., Chet I., and Lorito M. 2004. Trichoderma species opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2(1): 43-56.
  13. Hemmat A., and Eskandari I. 2006. Dryland winter wheat response to conservation tillage in a continuous cropping system in northwestern Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 86: 1: 99-109.
  14. Jackson AM, Whipps JM, and Lynch JM. 1991. Effects of temperature, PH and water potential on growth of four fungi with disease biocontrol potential. World Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology 7: 494-501.
  15. Khaledi N., and Taheri P. 2016. Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum against soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Journal of Plant Protection Research 56(1): 359-365. (In Persian with English abstract)
  16. Khan A. 2015. Using films in the ESL classroom to improve communication skills of non-native learners. Elt Voices. 5(4): 46-52.
  17. Kolasa M., Ahring BK., Lubeck PS., and Lubeck M. 2014. Co-cultivation of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 with three black Aspergillus strains facilitates efficient hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw and shows promises for on-site enzyme production. Bioresource Technology 169: 143-148.
  18. Mahato S., Bhuju S., and Shrestha J. 2018. Effect of Trichoderma viride as biofertilizer on growth and yield of wheat. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agricultur 2(2): 1-5.
  19. Moaven N., Ghorbani R., and Rezaeian-Doloei R. 2012. Investigation on biological control of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) with fungal pathogens. Journal of Agricultural Knowledge and Sustainable Production 24(2): 108-122. (In Persian with English abstract)
  20. Mokhtar H., and Aid D. 2013. Contribution in isolation and identification of some pathogenic fungi from wheat seeds, and evaluation of antagonistic capability of Trichoderma harzianum against those isolated fungi in vitro. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 4(2): 145-154.
  21. Monaco C., Sisterna M., Perello A., and Dal-Bello G. 2004. Preliminary studies on biological control of the blackpoint complex of wheat in Argentina. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20(3): 285-290.    
  22. Peng Z., Ting W., Haixia W., Min W., Xiangping M., Siwei M., and Qingfang H. 2015. Effects of straw mulch on soil water and winter wheat production in dryland farming. Scientific Reports 5: 107-125.
  23. Pere J., Siika-aho, M., and Viikari L. 1995. Effects of purified Trichoderma ressei cellulose on the fiber properties of kraft pulp. Journal Tappi Press Atlanta GA (USA) 78(6).71-78.
  24. Qasmkhyly f., Pyrdshty h., Bahmanyar M., and Tajik M. 2015. The effect of Trichoderma harzianum and cadmium on tolerance and yield index of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Journal of Ecophysiological Crops 8(32): 465-482. (In Persian with English abstract)
  25. Rajaeian S., Ehsanpour , and Toghyani MA. 2015. Changes in phenolic compound, TAL, PAL activity of Nicotiana rustica triggered by ethanolamine pretreatment under in vitro salt stress condition. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology 7(26): 1-12. (In Persian with English abstract)
  26. Rawat L., Singh Y., Shukla N., and Kumar J. 2011. Alleviation of the adverse effects of salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum) by seed biopriming with salinity tolerant isolates of Trichoderma harzianum. Plant and Soil 1-2: 347-387.
  27. Rivero ST., Moorillon VN., and Borunda EO. 2009. Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi. Bioresource Technology 100(6): 1992-1998.
  28. Saini S. 2016. Trichoderma and metal chelator enhanced growth and yields in wheat plants by increasing zinc availability. International Education and Research 2(1): 375-390.
  29. Samuels GJ., Ismaiel A., Mulaw TB., Szakacs G., and Druzhinina IS. 2012. The Longibrachiatum clade of Trichoderma: a revision with new species. Fungal Diversity 55(1): 77-108.
  30. Scott, JD. 1976. Praise the Potato. Reader’s Digest Dec, 205-212.
  31. Sharma P., Patel AN., Saini MK., and Deep S. 2012. Field demonstration of Trichoderma harzianum as a plant growth promoter in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Journal of Agricultural Science 4(8): 65-77.
  32. Shoresh M., Harman GE., and Mastouri F. 2010. Induced systemic resistance and plant responses to fungal biocontrol agents. Annual Review of Phytopathology 48: 21-43.
  33. Singh A., Shahid M., Srivastava M., Pandey S., Sharma A., and Kumar V. 2013. Optimal physical parameters for growth of Trichoderma species at varying ph, temperature and agitation. Virology and Mycology 3: 2161-0517.
  34. Surekha C., Neelapu N., Prasad BS., and Ganesh PS. 2014. Induction of defense enzymes and phenolic content by Trichoderma viride in Vigna mungo infested with Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. International Journal Agric Sci Research 4(4): 31-40.
  35. Woudenberg JHC., Groenewald JZ., Binder M., and Crous PW. 2013. Alternaria Studies in Mycology 75:171-212.
  36. Yasin M., Munir I., and Faisal M. 2016. Can Bacillus enhance K+ uptake in crop species Potassium solubilizing microorganisms for sustainable agriculture. Springer, New Delhi. 163-170.