Document Type : Research Article
Agricultural Zoology Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection respectively, Tehran, Iran (ARREO)
Plant Protection Research Department, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Iran
Introduction: Three mite species (Panonychus citri (McGregor)), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) in Caspian costal region in north part Iran and Eutetranychus orientalis Klein in southern part of the country playing major mite pests role in citrus orchards. An increase of Panonychus citri population activities onset with spring season and this mite damages on leaves and greenhouse shield of different citrus species mostly occurred during middle part of spring season and extended up to late summer season under low amount and number of rainfalls happened. At present control of this mite damages on citrus spp mostly depended to pesticide application in various citrus orchards in Mazandaran and other neighboring citrus growing provinces. Moreover, the highest amount of acaricides used in Mazandaran province applied for control of citrus mite pests only. To avoid further P. citri population resistance to limited number of pesticides available in market, introducing, a new compound of acaricide which being effective on eggs and active stages of this mite pests is necessary for sustainable mite pest management program.
Materials and Methods: In this study, effects of two doses (0.2, 0.3 ml) of Envidorspeed 24% SC were investigated in comparison to registered acaricides (Spirodiclofen 240 SC, 0.3 ml/l, Abamectin 1.8% EC, 20ml+250ml horticultural oil/100l water, Fenpyroximate 5% SC, 0.5 ml/l), organic pesticides (Biomite 2.5ml/l, Mineral silicon liquid 5%), detergent (Detergent of Goli 1.5%), Control treatment (water sprayed) were investigated on P. citri active stages in eastern and western parts of Mazandaran province. Those pesticides applied at the time of observing 5 active mite stages observed in 30 % of infested leaves collected randomly. Number of mobile mite stages on upper surface of 48 citrus leaves randomly collected from each treatment, mobile mites counted and registered with the help of stereomicroscope at laboratory conditions. Collected raw data of mite at one day before, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after treatments converted with Henderson-tilton formula into mortality%. Statistical analysis variance on mean mortality% done with SAS software and grouping of those treatment carried out according Duncan multiple range test methods. Side effects of those treatments on citrus natural enemy’s trees (mostly predatory mites from Phytoseiidae, Tydeidae, Cunaxidae, Stigmaeidae, Erythraeidae, and Trombidiidae) and few predatory insects, evaluated by data collected one day before treatments with data of natural enemies collected 21 days after treatments. Quantities damages of this mite pest on citrus fruit weight were also evaluated from end of leaves sampling treatments for toxicities at interval of one month during 3 months sampling period. Amount of mite damages in each treatment determined by random collection of 16 citrus fruits from middle part of citrus trees of each treatment and weighted them at each interval time until harvesting time in autumn season.
Results and Discussion: Result of both Envidorspeed doses efficiency in control of citrus red mite caused absolute mite control (100%) through sampling period of time. Mean population of 8.01 mite active stages recorded on upper surface of orange leaves did not influences on mite mortality % in eastern part of Mazandaran province. The organic treatments effects (Biomite 2.5ml/l, Mineral silicon liquid 5%) on citrus mite pest observed almost identical to effects of those registered acaricides applied in this study. The mite mortality% in eastern part found higher than western part of province. The different caused by this phenomena, mostly related to higher rate of rainfall in west than east part of this province as decreasing toxicity of pesticides affects. Maximum and minimum number of natural enemies as compared to controlled treatment were recorded for 0.3 ml/l of Envidorspeed dose and biomite organic pesticide, detergent (Goli 1.5%) treatments respectively. Less side effects of treatments toxicity recorded on an Oribatida mite (Scheloribates sp.) population, whereas harmful effects of them observed on two species of phytoseiid mite family (Amblyseius herbicolus, Typhlodromus caspiansis). Statistical analysis of citrus red mite damages on weight of citrus fruits at different treatments compared with control treatment did not showed a significant differences (p>0.05) and all treatment remained in a same group according Duncan method. According published articles, proper rate of citrus red mite damages on oranges or other citrus species remained unknown.
Conclusion: This finding suggested that, if lower Envidorspeed dose (0.2ml/l) applied at early stages of citrus red mite population, up to 33% cost of pesticide will reduce, protect further environmental pollution at citrus orchards which broadly scattered through Mazandaran province.
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