The Control of Two-spotted Spider Mite in Soybean Fields with Chlorfenapyr (Payton®) 36% SC

Document Type : Research Article


1 Zoology Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, AREEO., Tehran, Iran

2 Biological Control Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, AREEO., Tehran, Iran

3 Plant Pest and Diseases Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Golestan Province, Gorgan, Iran


Background and Objectives
 The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the most important pests of soybean fields. This mite is one of the most important and harmful pests of soybeans in hot and dry summers, which often begins to cause damage at the end of the growing stage and the beginning of the reproductive stage of plants. Damaged leaves turn yellow and brown and fall off prematurely. The severity of the damage of this pest is greater when the distance between the plants is short and irrigation is not enough. This mite feed on soybean leaves and cause injury by sucking contents out of leaf cells. In severe infestations, infested leaves will turn yellow to tan, or sometimes bronze-colored, and may drop off plants. Infestations can reduce yield. In most cases, the use of acaricides is the only way to control this pest. The use of new acaricides while avoiding their resistance is important for plant mites control.
Materials and Methods
 The present study was conducted in soybean fields of Golestan and Ardabil provinces (Moghan) with 6 treatments and 4 replicates. Treatments were, including clorfenapyr (Payton®) 36% SC  0.5 ml/L (recommended dose), clorfenapyr (Payton®) 36% SC  0.4 ml/L, propargite (Omite®) 57% EC 1 ml/L (recommended dose), bromopropylate (Neuron®) 25% EC 1 ml/L (recommended dose), hexythiazox (Nissorun®) 10%EC 0.75 ml/L (recommended dose) and a control treatment by spraying water. Mean number of mites per leaf was counted one day before and 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after spraying in three floors of plant (bottom, middle and top of plant).The percentage of efficiency was calculated by the Henderson-Tilton method. Statistical analyses were done using SAS software with randomized complete block design in multiple spaces. Data analysis and comparison of means were performed using Tukey test.
 The efficacy of studied acaricides was acceptable in all three floors. In Moghan and Glostan province, before spraying on the lower, middle and upper leaves of soybean plants, the number of T. urticae mites counted per leaf in different treatments did not differ significantly. Clorfenapyr (Payton®) was effective after 3 days. The percent mortality of mites when were treated with clorfenapyr (0.5 ml/L) in the upper, lower and middle floors was 83-86% in Ardabil province, although has been reported 72-84% for Payton (0.4 ml/L). While in Golestan province, it has been 100%. The efficacy of the compound was 68-72% (0.4 ml/L) and 78-94% (0.5 ml/L) in Ardabil province (Moghan) and was 100% in Golestan province after 7 days. The knock down effect of this acaricide compared the others was significant. The efficacy of the compound was up to 99% (Ardabil province) and 96% Golestan province after 28 days that indicated the persistence of these acaricides. The results showed that two-spotted spider mite on the lower leaves in both provinces showed more infection. However when used pesticides, it did not show any significant differences. The percentage mortality of mites in Moghan were reported for Payton (0.4 ml/L) (86.32 ± 2.75%, 83.61 ±7.21%), (78.49 ± 4.01%, 82.87 ± 4.58%), (93.52 ± 1.47%, 74.80 ± 9.91%), (95.12 ± 3.90%, 80.39 ± 3.54%) and (99.33 ± 0.67%, 84.82 ± 8.29%) respectively after 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in lower leaves, while the percentage mortality of the spider mites when treated with Payton (0.5 ml/L) after  3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days  were 100 ± 0%, 100 ± 0 %, 94.94 ± 5.05%, 100 ± 0% and 93.95 ± 4.72% and for Payton (0.5 ml/L) were 100 ± 0%, 100 ± 0%, 88.80 ± 8.57%, 95.02 ± 2.87% and 85.51± 4.92% in lower leaves in Glostan province.
 It is recommended to use chlorfenapyr acaricide with Payton brand due to high short-term effect (three days after spraying) and duration of action up to 28 days after spraying to control two-spotted spider mite in soybean fields. These compounds showed acceptable efficacy in controlling two-spotted sider mites on soybean fields. In most cases, the application of the two concentrations of the clorfenapyr was not significantly different, but the percent mortality was more when it treated with 0.4 ml/L. The number mites in lower floors of soybean was more than the upper and middle floors, but after the application of this pesticides was not significantly different. Based on these results, we recommend the 0.4 ml/L dose of clorfenapyr (Payton®) for the control of two-spotted spider mite in soybean fields.


Main Subjects

1– Allameh, S.Z., Shahriari, A., Soltani, A., & Zeinali, A. (2012). Environmental assessment of pesticides used in wheat, rapeseed. Soybean and cotton fields around Gorgan, the first national conference on strategies for achieving sustainable development. (In Persian)
2– Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H.R., Hatami, F., Abd Shah, H., & Kazemian, A. (2020). Agricultural Statistics of 2018-2019. Volume II. Deputy of Planning and Economics, Information and Communication Technology Center, 97 pages. (In Persian)
3– Athanassiou, C.G., Kavallierators, N.G., Arthr, F.H., & Throne, J.E. (2014). Residual efficacy of chorfenapyr for control of storead –product Psocids (Pscoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology 107(2): 854–859.
4–Atkinson, N.J., & Peter, E. (2012). The interaction of plant biotic and abiotic stresses from genes to the field. Journal of Experimental Botany 63: 3523–3543.
5– Bosnyakne, H.E., Kerepesi, I., & Keszthelyi, S. (2017). Adverse effect of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on soybean protein composition. Acta Alimentaria 46(3): 355–360.
6– Bozhgani, N.S., Ghobadi, H., & Riahi, E. (2018). Sublethal effect of chlorfenapyr on the life table parameters of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic & Applied Acarology 23(7): 1342–1351.
7– Ebrahimi, L. (2016). Two spotted spider mite management in soybean in Moghan. Technical Maual of Ministry of Agriculture Jihad of Ardebil province, Number 97, 19pp. (In Persian)
8– Haile, F.J., & Higley, L.G. (2003). Changes in soybean gas-exchange after moisture stress and spider mite injury. Environmental Entomology 32: 433-440.
9– Henderson, C.F., & Tilton E.W. (1955). Teast with acaricides against the brow wheat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology 48: 157– 161.  
10– Hildebrand, D.F., Rodriguez, J.G., Brown, G.C., Luu, K.T., & Volden, C.S. 1986. Peroxidative responses of leaves in two soybean genotypes injured by two-spotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 79: 1459–1465.
11– Gallo, D., Nakano, O., Neto, S.S., Carvalho, R.P.L., Baptistam, G.C., Filho, E.B., Parra, J.R.P., Zucchi, R.A., Alves, S.B., Vendramin, J.D., Lopes, J.R.S., & Omoto, C. (2002). Entomologia Agrícola. Piracicaba, Editora Agronômica Ceres. 920pp.
12– Morad Ishaqi, M.J., & Davachi, A. (1971). Investigation of the effect of several acaricides on cotton mites and soybeans in Gorgan and Dasht regions. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran 30: 1–22. (In Persian)
13– Norbakhesh, S. (2019). List of important pests, diseases and weeds of major agricultural products, pesticides and recommended methods to control them. Plant Protection Organization. Ministry of Agriculture – Jahad. 222 pp. (In Persian)
14– Leod, M.C., Diaz, F.J., & Johnson, D.T. (2002). Toxicity, persistence and efficacy of spinosad chlorfenapyr and thiamethaxam on egg plant when applied against egg plant flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 95(2): 331–335.
15– Peterson, C.J., & Davis, R.W. (2013). Mobility longevity and activity of chlorfenapyr in soil treated at a tetmiticidal rate. Pest Management Science 69(1): 88–92.
16– Raghavendra, K., Barik, T.K., Sharma, P., Bhatt, R.M., Srivastava, H.C., Sreehori, U., & Dash, A.P. (2011). Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors. Malaria Journal 10: 16-23.
17– Sangak, N.S.B., Ghobadi, H., & Riahi, E. (2018). Sublethal effects of chlorfenapyr on the life table parameters of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology 23(7): 1342–1351.
18– SAS Inc. 2003. Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc. Cary. Nc. USA.
19– Sedaratian, A., Fathipour, Y., & Moharramipour, S. (2009). Evaluation of resistance in 14 soybean cultivars to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Pest Science 82: 163–170.
20– Suekane, R., Eduardo, D.P., de Melo, E.P., & Bertoncello T.F. (2012). Damage level of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in soybean, Revista Ceres 59(1): 77–81.
21– Zhao, Y., Wang, Q., Wang, Y., Zhang, Z., Wei, Y., Liu, F., Zhou, Ch., & Mu, W. (2017). Chlorfenapyr, a potent alternative insecticide of phoxim to control Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae). Journal of Agricul tural and Food Chemistry 65(29): 5908–5915.