The Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Persistence of Trifluralin Herbicide in Soil Using Gas Chromatography Method

Document Type : Research Article


Ferdowsi Uuniversity of Mashhad


Introduction: Herbicides that persist in soil are of benefit to farmers seeking to control late emerging weeds in cultivated crops, and to managers looking for long-term vegetation control on rights-of-ways and industrial sites. Herbicides that persist in soil can also create problems for farmers who want to diversify their rotation into subsequent crops which may be sensitive to certain herbicide residues. Several factors mainly soil factors, climatic conditions, and herbicide properties determine the herbicides persistence in soil. Trifluralin is one of the important soil applied selective, pre-sowing or pre-emergence herbicide used to control many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in a large variety of crops. It is a generally regarded as a moderately persistence herbicide with a half-life time of 1.5 to 6.5 months. Some studies, however, have reported higher half-life times varying from 7.5 to longer than 12 months. These results have been generally obtained at sites with very dry or very cold climates in which soil is frozen over winter. Normally Residual herbicides extend the period of weed control, increasing the efficiency of weed management practices. However, they may persist longer than desired and injure or kill subsequent rotational crops. Thus, most herbicide labels include crop rotation guidelines, but rotational restrictions are often not listed for many crops. This experiment was carried out to determine trifluralin soil persistence affected by its dose and application some organic and biofertilizers.
Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of some organic and biofertilizers on trifluralin herbicide persistence in soil, an experiment was conducted as a factorial arrangement in completely randomized block design with three replications in a cotton field at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Experimental factors included trifluralin (EC 48 %) dose at two levels (480 and 960 g a.i. ha-1), application of organic fertilizers at two levels (Humic acid (85 %) and folic acid (12 %) and biofertilizers application at two levels (Nitroxin and fertile phosphate2). To determine the trifluralin soil residue, soil samples were taken from 0 to 10 cm soil depth during 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after herbicide application and were kept in a freezer (-18 oC). For trifluralin soil residue, gas chromatography technique was used. The trifluralin value recovered from soil at different time intervals for each treatment was fitted in the first order kinetic equation according to:
C = C0e–kt                                                                                                                                                     (1)
Where C denotes the amount of trifluralin recovered from soil at time t, C0 is the amount of trifluralin recovered at t = 0 interval; λ represents the degradation constant, and t is time in days. The DT50 (half-life) and DT90 (the time required to disappear 90 % of herbicide) were calculated as follows:
Results and Discussion: Results showed that application of organic and biofertilizers significantly reduced trifluraline persistence in soil. The lowest trifluralin half-life time was observed for organic and bio-fertilizer application equal to 55.26 and 41.26 days, respectively, at the dose of 480 g a.i ha-1 of trifluralin. The highest half-life times equal to 106.64 and 78.77 days were observed in control treatment without application of fertilizers for the trifluralin dose of 960 and 480 g. a.i ha-1, respectively. Application of organic and biofertilizers plays important role in reducing of trifluralin soil residue and persistence. Therefore, the mentioned fertilizers have positive effects in fields where there is a risk of damage of trifluralin residue for rotational crops.


1- Anonymous. 1993. Crop rotation systems in potato production in Atlantic Canada. Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conservation Centre, Grand Falls, New Brunswick. 33 pp.
2- Bellinaso M.L., Greer C.V., Peralba M., Henriques J., and Gaylard E.C. 2006. Biodegradation of the herbicide trifluralin by bacteria isolated from soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 43: 191–194.
3- Benoit P., Barriuso E., and Soulas G. 1999. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol, and -4chlorophenol in soil after sorption on humified and nonhumiiied organic matter. Journal of Environmental Quality 28: 1127-1135.
4- Berger B.M., Bernd T., Menne H.J., Hackfield U., and Siebert C.F. 1996. Effects of crop management on the fates of three herbicides in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44: 1905-1900.
5- Carter G.E., and Camper N.D. 1975. Soil enrichment studies with trifluralin. Weed Science 23: 71-74.
6- Corbin B.R., McCllelland M., Frans R.E., Talbert R.E., and Horton D. 1994. Dissipation of fluometuron and trifluralin residues after long-term use. Weed Science 42: 445-438.
7- Gerwing P.D., and McKercher R.B. 1992. The relative persistence of trifluralin (545 EC and 5 G) and ethafluralin in prairie soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 72: 255-266.
8- Gillespie William E., Czapar George F., and Hager Aaron G. 2011. Pesticide Fate in the Environment: A Guide for Field Inspectors. Illinois State Water Survey. Institute of. Natural Resource Sustainability. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
9- Hang M., Zhongyun C., Yuhua Z., and Meichi Min C. 2001. Effects of trifluralin on soil microbial population and the nitrogen activities. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 36: 569–579.
10- Helena C. 2011. Humic Acids Product Guide. California Edition. Review of Humus and Humic Acids. Research Series No. 145, March L. 1973. The South Carolina Agricultural Experiment station, Clemson University.
11- Helling C.S. 2005. The science of soil residual herbicides. Pages 3-22 in R.C. Van Acker, ed. Soil Residual Herbicides: Science and Management. Topics in Canadian Weed Science, Volume 3. Sainte-Anne-de Bellevue, Quebec: Canadian Weed Science Society.
12- Jalal Hassan J., Farahanib A., Shamsipur M., and Damerchili F. 2010. Rapid and simple low density miniaturized homogeneous liquid–liquid extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of pesticide residues in sediment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 184: 869–871
13- Jeenie P., and Khanna S.V. 2011. In Vitro Sensitivity of rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria to herbicides. Indian Journal of Microbiology 51: 230-233.
14- Kanissery, R.G., Gerald, K. S. 2011. Biostimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil. Review Article .Hindawi Publishing Corporation .Applied and Environmental Soil Science.10: 843-450.
15- Morrison I.N., Nawolsky K.M., Marshall G.M., and Smith A.E. 1989. Recovery of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) injured by trifluralin. Weed Science 37: 784-789.
16- National Weather Service statistics.2000.
17- Pignatello J.J. 1989. Sorption dynamics of organic compounds in soils and sediments. In Reactions and Movements of Organic Chemicals in Soils. Pages 45-80. SSSA Special Publication Number 22. Madison, Wisconsin.
18- Rathod P.H. Patel R.B., and Jhala A.J. 2010. Persistence and management of dinitroaniline herbicides residues in sandy loam soil. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development 9: 53-57.
19- Rice C.P., Nochetto C.B., and Zara P. 2002. Volatilization of trifluralin, atrazine, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan from freshly tilled soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50: 4009-4017.
20- Senesi N. 1992. Binding mechanisms of pesticides to soil humic substances. Science Total Environment 12: 63–76.
21- Shaner D. L., and Henry W.B. 2007. Field history and dissipation of atrazine and metolachlor in Colorado Journal of Environmental Quality 36: 128-134.
22- Spanoghe P., Claeys J., Pinoy L., and Steurbaut W. 2005. Rainfastness and adsorption of herbicides on hard surfaces.Pest Management Science 61: 793–798.
23- Strek H.J. 2005.The science of dupotion, soil residual herbicides in canada. Conference paper. Page 31-44 Soil Residual Herbicides: Science and Management. Topics in Canadian Weed Science, Volume 3. Sainte-Anne-de Bellevue, Quebec: Canadian Weed Science Society.
24- Smith A.E., and Aubin A.J. 1994. Carry-over of granular and emulsifiable concentrate formulations of trifluralin in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 74: 439-442.
25- Triantafyllidis V., Dimitra S.M., George H., and Konstantinou M. 2010. Persistence of trifluralin in soil of oilseed rape fields in Western Greece. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 90: 344-356.
26- Tiryaki O., Ülkü Y., and Sezen G. 2004. Biodegradation of Trifluralin in Harran Soil. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 39:747-756.
27- Tiryaki O., and Temur C. 2010. The Fate of Pesticide in the Environment. J. Biol. Environ. Sci. 4: 29-38.
28- Turgut C., Erdogan O., Ates D., Gokbulut D., and Cutright T.J. 2010. Persistence and behavior of pesticides in cotton production in Turkish soils. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 162: 201-208.
29- Uludag A., Ilhan U.A.C., Ulger B., and Cakir E. 2006. The use of maize as replacement crop in trifluralin treated cotton fields in Turkey. Crop Protection 25: 275–280