Optimizing the Performance of Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr on Chenopodium album L. (Common Lambsquarter) Control by Adjuvants

Document Type : Research Article


university of birjand


Introduction: Weed management is one of the most important aspects of successful crop production for supplying food for the rising population. Chenopodium album L. (common lambsquarter) is among the most noxious weeds in the world due to its superior biology and tremendous ecological adaptations. It causes substantial yield losses in different field crops including potato, tomato, soybean, alfalfa, watermelon, sugar beet, and so on. Therefore, management of C. album L. is crucial for optimum crop production. Chemical management is a very relevant method for controlling C. album. For decreasing costs of production, adverse and edge effects of the herbicide, optimizing herbicides performance is very essential. It seems that the use of adjuvants is the best solution method to achieve optimizing herbicides performance. Using a proper adjuvant may be affected the performance and fate of herbicide in the environment and finally may be restrict introduced to the food chain. Therefore, using proper adjuvants known as a key point in adjuvants applying technology. This study was conducted for evaluating adjuvants effects on C. album control by Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr herbicides.
Materials and Methods: In order to study the effects of adjuvants on the performance of Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr on C. album control two separated experiments as factorial based on completely randomized design were conducted in the research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand in 2016. Treatments included herbicide concentration at seven levels (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of recommended dose) and adjuvant at three levels (turnip oil, citogate and without adjuvants) with four replications. For increasing seed germination and breaking seed dormancy of C. album, the seeds treated by sulfuric acid for 1 min, and then seeds washed with tap water for 10 min. Then the seeds were sown in potting trays (3 cm × 3 cm × 5 cm) filled with moistened peat. One week after sowing, at the one-leaf seedlings stages, they were transplanted to 2-L plastic pots filled with a mixture of sand, clay loam soil, and peat (1:1:1; v/v/v). The pots were sub-irrigated every two days. The seedlings were thinned to four per pot at the two-leaf stage. The spray was done at the four-leaf stage (Four weeks after sowing) by using a chargeable sprayer equipped with an 8002 flat fan nozzle tip delivering 250 L ha-1 at 2 bar spray pressure. Four weeks after spraying, the above ground tissue and roots of plant were harvested, oven dried and weighted.
Results and Discussion: The results of these experiments showed that the use of additives, especially turnip oil, increased the efficacy of Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr herbicides in control of C. album. Turnip oil and citogate increased the efficiency of Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr in reducing the production of by C. album above ground tissue1.29, 1.28, 2.13, and 1.30 times, respectively. However, these values were equal to 2.79, 1.98, 2.35, and 1.66 times for reducing the root biomass of C. album. The results of this study also showed that the root was more susceptible to herbicides in the presence of adjuvants. Increasing Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr herbicides concentrations led to decreased dry biomass produced by C. album. Turnip oil compared to citogate showed high efficiency for improving Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr performance. The results of this study showed a similar trend with other scientific reports including Rashed mohassel et al (26) that reported the high efficiency of herbicides for controlling canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) in the presence of vegetable oils compared with mineral oils.
Conclusion: The result of this study showed different response of Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr to turnip oil and Citogate adjuvants. Therefore, applied proper herbicide adjuvant is a key factor in chemical weed management because this factor reduces herbicide rates for similar weed response. Using proper adjuvants may be increased herbicide performance more than other adjuvants. Moreover, results of these experiments revealed that root response was more than above ground tissue response to Bentazon+Acifluorfen and Imazethapyr herbicides in the presence of adjuvants.


1- Aliverdi A., Rashed Mohassel M.H., Zand E., and Nassiri Mahallati M. 2009. Increased foliar activity of clodinafop propargyl and/or tribenuron-methyl by surfactants and their synergistic action on wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). Weed Biology and Management 9: 292–299.
2- Barros J.F.C., Basch G., and Carvalho M. 2007. Effect of reduced doses of a post-emergence herbicide to control grass and broad-leaved weeds in no-till wheat under Mediterranean conditions. Crop Protection 26: 1538-1545.
3- Barroso J., Ruiz D.C., Escribano L., and Fernandez-Quintanilla C. 2009. Comparison of three chemical control strategies for Avena sterlis ssp. ludoviciana. Crop Protection 28: 393-400.
4- Bellinder R.R., Arsenovic M., Shah D.A., and Rauch B.J. 2003. Effect of weed growth stage and adjuvant on the efficacy of fomesafen and bentazon. Weed Science 51: 1016-1021.
5- Bunting J.A., Sprague C.L., and D.E. Riechers. 2004. Proper adjuvant selection for foramsulfuron activity. Crop Protection 23: 361-366.
6- Crook T.M., and Renner K.A. 1990. Common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) competition and time of removal in soybean. Weed Science 38: 358-364.
7- Frotan Y. 1993. Safety and hygiene in the production and consumption of agricultural pesticides. Motarjem Press.
8- Green J.M., and Beestman G.B. 2007. Recently patented and commercialized formulation and adjuvant technology. Crop Protection 26: 320-327.
9- Hatzois K.K., and Penner D. 1985. Interaction of herbicides with other agrochemical in higher plants. Review of Weed Science 1: 1-63.
10- Hazen J.L. 2000. Adjuvants terminology, classification, and chemistry. Weed Technology 14: 773-784.
11- Holm L.G., Pluknett D.L., Pancho J.V., and Herberger J.P. 1977. The World’s Worst Weeds. Honolulu, HI: The University Press of Hawaii, 609pp.
12- Izadi-Darbandi E., Aliverdi A., and Hammami H. 2013. Behavior of vegetable oils in relation to their influence on herbicides’ effectiveness. Industrial Crops and Products 44: 712-717.
13- Jinxia S. 1996. Characterization of organosilicone surfactants and their on sulfonylurea herbicide activity. Approved: Foy CLC, Grayson RL, Hatzios KK, Hess JL and Orectt DM. Blacksburg. Virginia.
14- Kargar M., Rashed-Mohassel M.H., Nezami A., and Izedi Darbandi E. 2011. Optimizing efficacy of Clodinafoppropargyl and Mesosulfuron-Iodosulfuron by adjuvants on littleseed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.). MSc. Thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian with English abstract)
15- Kudsk P. 1992. The effect of adjuvants on the rainfastness of thifensulfuron and tribenuron. In: Adjuvants for Agrichemicals (ed. CL Foy), 441±8. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
16- Kudsk P. 2008. Optimising herbicide dose: a straightforward approach to reduce the risk of side effects of herbicides. Environmentalist 28: 49–55.
17- Kudsk P., and Mathiassen S.K. 2007. Analysis of adjuvant effects and their interactions with variable application parameters. Crop Protecion 26: 328-334.
18- Kudsk P., and Streibig J.C. 2003. Herbicides – a two-edged sword. European Weed Research Society Weed Research 43: 90–102.
19- Morteza Pour H., Ovissi M., Wazan S., and Zand A. 2009. Modeling on interactions of imazetapyr herbicide and planting density on soybean yield. Iranian Journal of Weed Knowledge 6(2): 1-11.
20- Monaco T.J., Weller S.C., and Ashton F.M. 2002. Weed Science: Principles and Practices. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
21- Penner D. 2000. Activator adjuvant. Weed Technology 14: 785-791.
22- Rastgoo M., Kargar M., and Asadollahi H. 2015. Investigating the possibility of decreasing the use of haloxyfop-R-methyl ester herbicides using vegetable oils in Canary grass control (Phalaris minor Retz). Agriculture Journal 106: 161-153.
23- Ramsey R.J.L., Stephenson G.R., and Hall J.C. 2005. A review of the effects of humidity, humectants, and surfactant composition on the absorption and efficacy of highly water-soluble herbicides. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 82: 162–175.
24- Rashed Mohassel M.H., and Husseini S.A. 2008. Expanding the context of weed management. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press.
25- Rashed- Mohassel M.H., Rastgo M., Mousavi S.K., Valiolahpour R., and Haghighi A. 2006. Principles of weed science (translation). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. (In Persian)
26- Rashed-Mohassel M.H., Aliverdi A., Hamami H., and Zand E. 2010. Optimizing the performance of diclofopmethyl, cycloxydim, and clodinafop-propargyl on littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) and wild oat (Avenaludoviciana) control with adjuvants. Weed Biology and Management 10: 57–63.
27- Rashed-Mohassel M.H., Aliverdi A. and Rahimi S. 2011. Optimizing dosage of sethoxydim and fenoxaprop-pethyl with adjuvants to control wild oat. Industrial Crops and Products 34: 1583-1587.
28- Saremi H., and Zand E. 2003. Fungi and biological control pests, pathogens, herbs. Zanjan University Publication, 142.‏
29- Shariatmadari Tehrani M., Nabavi Kalat S.M., Bazobindi M.F., Hammami H., and Ali Verdi A. 1393. Optimization of clodinafop efficiency in control of canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz) by vegetable oils. Journal of Plant Protection (Science and Technology of Agriculture) 28: 183-171.
30- Sharma S.D., and Singh M. 2000. Optimizing foliar activity of glyphosate on Bidens frondosa and Panicum maximum with different adjuvant types. Weed Research 40: 523-533.
31- Steinbauer G.P., and Grigsby B. 1959. Methods of obtaining field and laboratory germination of seeds of bindweeds, lady's thumb, and velvetleaf. Weeds Science 7: 41-46.
32- Stenersen J. 2004.Chemical pesticides: mode of action and toxicology. CRC Press. www.crcpress.com.
33- Weaver S.E., Tan C.S., and Brain P. 1988. Effect of temperature and soil moisture on time of emergence oftomatoes and four weed species. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 68: 877–886.
34- WSSA Herbicide Handbook, 7th ed. 1994. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America. 313p.
35- Young B.G., and Hart S.E. 1998. Optimizing foliar activity of isoxaflutole on giant foxtill (Setaria faberi) with various adjuvants. Weed Science 46: 397-402.
36- Zand E., Mousavi S.K., and Heidari A. 2008. Herbicides and their application methods with optimization approach and reduce consumption. Jihad, Mashhad University Press. (In Persian)