Evaluation of Sprayer Type Effect and Tribenuron-Methyl (Gyahstar) Herbicide Dosage on Broadleaf Weeds of Water Wheat Fields

Document Type : Research Article


1 Azad Mashhad

2 Lorestan

3 Ferdowsi


Introduction: Weed management is a key topic in many farming systems. Nowadays, application of herbicides is the most common method to control wheat weeds and maximize yield. Modification of sprayer such as adjusting sprayer for producing droplet with suitable size and uniform can be considered to reduce herbicides usage. For this purpose, the volume median diameter (VMD), numerical median diameter (NMD) and uniform spraying ratio (VMD/NMD) = QC are the common factors. Other method to decrease herbicide usage in field is applying appropriate sprayer. Electrostatic, lance tractor, microner, atomizer and boom sprayer tractor are the common sprayer applying for controlling weeds in wheat fields. Among them, lance tractor sprayer is used at more than 70% of farms in the country. Tribenuron-methyl is a selective post-emergence herbicide for controlling broad leaved weeds in wheat fields. The product is absorbed and transferred by weeds stems and leaves to prevent cell division and kill weeds. Application should be carried out in early spring when weeds are actively growing. Tribenuron-methyl mode of action is inhibiting biosynthesis of the essential amino acids valine and isoleucine, hence stopping cell division and plant growth. Selectivity derives from rapid crop metabolism. Mode of action is rapidly absorbed by foliage and roots and translocated throughout plant. Susceptible plants cease to grow almost immediately after post-emergence treatment and are killed in 7-21 days.
Materials and Methods: To evaluate common sprayer and different doses of tribenuron-methyl herbicide on broadleaf weeds of irrigated wheat, an experiment was carried out in field (with an area of 1200 m2) located in Hakimabad, Mashhad, Iran  (latitude 58° 53'  N, longitude 36° 46' E) during spring of 2014. The experimental design was split plots based on randomized completed blocks with four replications undertaken in plots with 50 m2 (5 × 10) area. The experimental treatments included the main factor with five types of sprayer (Electrostatic, Lance tractor, Microner, Atomizer and Boom sprayer tractor) and sub factor with applying tribenuron-Methyl herbicide )Giahstar, 75% DF, Ariashimi, Iran) at dosage of 15, 20 and 25 gr. ha-1. Broadleaf weeds were sampled in middle of the plots using 1 × 1 quadrate 10 and 20 days after spraying. The weeds biomass and density and wheat yield loss were then assessed. Samples were oven-dried at 75 °C for 72 h and then weighed. Final data were analyzed by SAS 9.1 and EXCEL.
Results and Discussion: The results of experiment showed that both weeds density and weight were sigificantly reduced by boom sprayer, whreras the lowest efficiency was found for atomizer and lance sprayers. Further, wheat broadleaf weeds were better controlled by boom sprayer with 25 gr/ha tribenuron-methyl application resulting in an increase to 5050 kg/ha for wheat yield. As for solution consumption rate in one hectare, the difference between spraying methods was significant at level of 1%. The highest and lowest herbicide solution rates were found for tractor lance sprayer and microner with 732.8 and 34.9 l.ha-1, respectively. Quality coefficient (VMD/NMD) also was significant at 1% probability level. The best quality coefficients were obtained for tractor boom sprayer (VMD/NMD = 1.8) followed by microner (VMD/NMD = 3). In other words, the tractor boom sprayer had more uniform spray quality than the microner sprayer. Moreover, both sprayers displayed better performance as compared with other sprayers tested. The largest (14.5 %) and lowest (2.8 %) crop losses were determined for tractor boom and microner sprayer, respectively. The highest (3.2 ha-1.h ) and lowest (1.1 ha-1.h ) field capacities were also obtained for tractor boom and microner sprayer, respectively.
Conclusion: The microner sprayer was the best sprayer in terms of solution consumption rate with an efficacy rate of 96 %. The greatest wheat yield (4830 kg.ha-1) was observed for tractor boom sprayer with applying 25 kg.ha-1 herbicide. Using  tractor lance sprayer applying 15 kg.ha-1 herbicide, however, resulted in the lowest wheat yield (4615 kg.ha-1). The greatest and lowest weeds controls were also found for tractor boom and tractor lance sprayer, atomizer sprayer tractor, respectively. Tribenuron-methyl application with dosage of 25 kg.ha-1 was the suitable dose for controlling prennial weeds such as bindweed, knotweed, knapweed and rhubarb.


1. Abasspoor M., Chitband A.A, Rajabzadeh M., and Tavakoli H. 2013. Non chemical weed control methods on pistachio (Pistachio vera) in Fezabad. Journal of Plant Protection. 27(2):222-230. (In Persian with English abstract)
2. Afshari M., and Bayatasadi H. 1989. Water sensitive paper and their application in sprayers calibration in Iran. Journal of Plant Pests and Diseases. 57(1): 71-75. (In Persian with English abstract)
3. Amirshaghaghi F. 1998. Study on the distribution of spraying in tractor boom sprayers. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Tarbiat Modares University. Tehran. Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
4. Baghestani M.A., Zand E., Soufizadeh S., Eskandari A., PourAzar R., Veysi M., and Nassirzadeh N. 2007. Efficacy evaluation of some dual purpose herbicides to control weeds in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Protection. 26: 936-942.
5. Barjasteh A., and Baghestani M.A. 2008. The evaluation of some new herbicides efficiency on weeds control of wheat fields in Semnan province. P. 257-261. In Proceedings of the 8th Eighteenth Plant Protection Congress, 24-27 Agu. 2008. Bualisina University of Hamedan, Iran.
6. Bazoo M., Montazeri M., Fathi G.A., and Golabi M. 2005. Evaluation the effect of broadleaf herbicides and nozzle type on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) control in wheat. P. 393-397. In proceeding of the 2th National Congress of Weed Science Congress, 29-30 Jan. 2005. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian with English abstract)
7. Cayley G.R., Etheridge P., Griffiths D.C., Philips F.T., and Scott G.C. 1988. A review of the performance of electrostatic charged rotary atomizers on different crops. Journal of Crop Protection. 7:125-130.
8. Daneshjoo M. 2007. The design of software for density and particle size diameter solution with image processing. M.Sc. Thesis. Ferdowsi University Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
9. Esehaghbeygi A., Tadayyon A., and Besharati Sh. 2010. Comparison of electrostatic and spinning-discs spray nozzles on wheat weeds control. Journal of American Science. 6(12):529-533.
10. Falahjedi R. 2005. Calibration of conventional sprayers in Iran. First Publish. Publications Office of Instructional Technology Services Branch. Pp. 139.
11. Farshad A. 1998. The use of water-sensitive cards to determine the dispersion spraying. Issue No. 42/78 Plant Protection Organization.
12. Gerami K., Zand E., Borgheie A., and Minaee S. 2005. Investigation of weed control using three kinds of sprayers in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields. P. 531-533. In Proceeding of the 1th National Congress of Weed Science, 29-30 Jan. 2005. Tehran University of Mashhad. (In Persian with English abstract)
13. Ghaemmaghami A., Khademolhosaini N., and Lovaimi N. 2008. Evaluation of four mechanisms in wheat spraying. P. 423-427. In Proceedings of the 5th National Conference on Agriculture Machinary Engineering and Mehanization, 27-28 Agu. 2008. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
14. Gupta C.P., Alamban R.B., and Dante E.T. 1996. Development of knapsack electrostatic spinning-disc sprayer for herbicide application in rice. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 25(4): 31-34.
15. Hesami E., and Lorzade Sh. 2008. The Compare of electrostatic and microner sprayers in the application of apyrus herbicide in wheat. P. 368-372. In Proceedings of the 3th area congress of research findings in Agriculture and Natural Resources, 4-5 Mar. 2008. Iran.
16. Jalaee Sadeghyan A. 2004. Simulation of fuzzy control system for sprayers. M.Sc. Thesis. Publications Faculty of Agriculture, Euromeye, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
17. Matthews G.A. 1990. Changes in application technique used by the small scale cotton farmer in Africa. Tropical Pest Management. 36(2):166-172.
18. Montazeri M., Zand E., Poorazar R., Bargasteh A.R., Nourouzzadeh S., Vaici M., and Zand E. 2005. An evaluation of efficacy of four wheat selective herbicide in the control of annual dicotyledons weed. Iranian Journal of Weed Science. 1(2):155-162. (in Persian with English abstract)
19. Mosalaneghad H., Norian M., and Mohammadbigi A. 2002. Important of pests, diseases and weeds. Publication of Plant Protection Organization. Pp. 112.
20. Mousavi S.K., Zand E., and Saremi H. 2005. Physiological function and application of herbicides. Zanjan University Press P: 286. (In Persian).
21. Nabizade M., Abbaspoor M., and Chitband A.A. 2013. Evaluation of sweet corn cultivars to new sulfonylurea and mixtures herbicide. Cereal Research. 3(3):227-242. (In Persian with English abstract)
22. Najafi H., Bazoobandi M., and Bagherani N. 2008. The evaluation of the possibility of optimizing the use of sprayer equipment in wheat fields. The final report of research project number is 011-33-16-7901-79002. The Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute of Khorasan Razavi P: 462. (In Persian)
23. Naseri M. 2008. The survey and evaluation of the factors affecting the performance of sprayer behind tractor farm turbines (Torbuliner). M.Sc. Thesis. Ferdowsi University Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)
24. Nezamabadi N., Zand E., Pourazar R., Bagherani N., and Baghestani M.A. 2007. Dose responses of some broadleaf weeds of wheat fields to different tribenuron methyl formulations. Pajouhsh & Sazandegi. 74:99-107. (In Persian with English abstract)
25. Parvin A., and Afshari M. 1995. The evaluation of the efficacy of pesticides based on plant density in the fight against cotton leaf honeydew. Research Institute of pests and plant diseases.
26. Rahimi A., Hossieni A., and Karampoor F. 2007. The evaluation of wheat herbicides. The final report of research project number is 017-48-163601-16002. The Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute of Boshehr P: 48. (In Farsi). http://www.Agri dashtestan.blogfa.com.
27. Rashed Mohassel M.H., Najafi H., and Akbarzadeh M. 2009. Weed biology and control. Mashhad University of Jehad Press P: 404. (In Persian)
28. Safari M. 2008. Technical evaluation conventional and new sprayers in wheat farms in order to determination of methods and proper machine to use in different regions of country. P. 16-20. In Proceedings of the 5th National Congress of Agricultural Engineering and Mechanization, 27-28 Agu. 2008. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
29. Safari M., Amirshaghaghi F., Lovaimi N., and Chaji H. 2010. Evaluation of Conventional Sprayers in Wheat Far. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. 10(4):1-12.
30. Safari M., Hedayatipoor A., and Gerami K. 2011. Construction and evaluation of a boom atomizer sprayer to control of sunn pests in a wheat crop. Agronomy Engineering. 34(1):75-86.
31. Salyani M., and serdynski J. 1990. Development of a Spray sensor for deposition assessment. Transactions of the ASAE 33(5):1464-1468.
32. Sanei shariat-panahi M. 2005. The most important broad-leaved weeds and grasses in Iran. Agricultural Training Press P: 318. (In Persian)
33. Sohrabi M.H. 1991. Technical principle sprayer and spraying. Department of Agriculture Bakhtaran.
34. Zand E., Baghestani M.A., Nezamabadi N., Minbashi M., and Hadizade M.H. 2009. A review on the last list of herbicides and the most important weeds of Iran. Iranian Journal of Weed Research. 1(2):83-100.
35. Zand E., Mousavi S.K., and Heidari A. 2008. Herbicides and their application. Mashhad University of Jehad Press P: 567. (In Persian)