Plant-Parasitic Nematodes of Legume Fields and Their Distribution in Kermanshah Province, Iran

Document Type : Research Article


Shiraz university


Introduction Legumes may be considered as the second most important source of high-quality protein after cereals. According to available reports, more than 35 species of nematodes belonging to 20 different genera of plant parasitic or fungal nematodes including Aphelenchoides, Basiria, Boleodorus, Criconemoides, Helicotylenchus, Hemicriconemoides, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Malenchus, Meloidogyne, Merlinius, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchoides, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Trophorus, Tylenchorhynchus, Tylenchus, Xiphinema and Zygotylenchus are reported from the legume fields worldwide. Kermanshah province with a cultivated area of 135060 hectares is the second legume producer in Iran. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with legumes have been identified in some provinces of Iran including Markazi (Khomein county), Lorestan and North Khorasan. Despite the fact that the province has been cultivated in such large area and the amount of legume production has been high in the country, so far no comprehensive study has been done on the identification of plant parasitic nematodes in Kermanshah province. In a few surveys, only three species of plant parasitic nematodes namely Pratylenchus thornei, Pratylenchoides ritteri and Paratylenchus elachistus have been recovered from chickpea fields in this province. Therefore, the aim of this research was to identify and determine the dominant species of important plant parasitic nematodes in the legume fields and determine their distribution in Kermanshah province.
Materials and Methods In order to identify and determine distribution of the most common plant parasitic nematodes, 173 root and soil samples were collected from legume fields (chickpea, lentil and faba bean) in several localities of Kermanshah province, during years 2016-2017. After extraction, fixation and transferring to anhydrous glycerol, the nematodes were mounted on microscopic slides and studied by using a light microscope, equipped with digital camera. Finally, they were identified using available identification keys.
Results and Discussion Based on morphometric and morphological characteristics, in this study, 19 species of the infraorder Tylenchomorpha viz. Aphelenchoides graminis, A. obtusus, Aphelenchus avenae, Ditylenchus adasi, D. equalis, D. medicaginis, D. myceliophagus, D. parvus, Filenchus vulgaris, Helicotylenchus scoticus, Merlinius brevidens, Nagelus obscurus, Neopsilenchus magnidens, Pratylenchus thornei, Pratylenchoides ritteri, Scutylenchus rugosus, S. tartuensis, Trophorus ussuriensis and Tylenchorhynchus parvus were identified. The species F. vulgaris, D. medicaginis, P. ritteri, H. scoticus, M. brevidens and T. parvus were the most common species in the legume fields of Kermanshah province with 33.8, 29.4, 27.9, 26.5, 13.2 and 13.2 percent frequency rates, respectively. Among 12 cities under legumes cultivation in the province, Kermanshah with 16 species, Ravansar and Gilan gharb each with nine species, Eslam Abad and Kerend Gharb each with seven species, had highest number of the nematode species. In chickpea fields, F. vulgaris, P. ritteri, H. scoticus and D. medicaginis were the most prevalent species, in lentil fields D. medicaginis, H. scoticus, T. parvus, F. vulgaris and S. tartuensis had higher frequency rates, and in faba bean fields D. medicaginis, M. brevidens and A. avenae were highly distributed species. The species Aphelenchoides obtusus, which has not been previously described in Iran, is described in full, and the males of A. obtusus is reported for the first time from Iran. Also A. graminis, D. medicaginis and P. ritteri which are more common or have morphological or morphometric diversity were described briefly. Seven species namely Aphelenchoides graminis, A. obtusus, Ditylenchus equalis, Nagelus obscurus, Scutylenchus tartuensis, Trophurus usuriensis and Tylenchorhynchus parvus are reported for the first time from legume fields in Iran. These seven species with together six other species namely D. adasi, D. parvus, Helicotylenchus scoticus, Merlinius brevidens, S. rugosus and Neopsilenchus magnidens are reported for the first time from Kermanshah province.
 Conclusions In the present paper, description of four species with together their morphometric data and illustrations (line drawings or photomicrographs) are provided. Also discussions were made on the diagnosis and relationships of these four species either with other populations or closely related species. Among the 19 identified species, it seems that Pratylenchoides ritteri (with potential damaging effects on legumes), and Ditylenchus medicaginis and Helicotylenchus scoticus (with high frequency and distribution in the studied regions) should be considered as important species for conducting further supplemental surveys in Kermanshah province. A very damaging species of nematodes to legumes, Pratylenchus thornei, was found only in 4.4 % of the studied fields, and the other important group of nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) were not recovered from the legume fields of Kermanshah province.


1- Ahmadi K., Gholizadeh H., Ebadzadeh H., Hosainpour R., Hatami F., Fazli B., Kazemian A., and Rafiei M. 2015. Agricultural Statiscal 1392-93. Volume 1, Crop Products, Mininstry of Jihade of Agriculture, First edition, P. 158.
2- Ahmadi S., Mahdikhani Moghaddam E., and Baghaee Davari S. 2015. Identification of plant parasitic nematode collected from pulse fields in Northern Khorasan province. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 5(2): 111-118. (In Persian with English abstract).
3- Akbari K., Minasslan V., Hojat Jalali A. A., and Hosseinnejad S. A. 2000. Studies on interaction of root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, and wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri on ILC 482 and Bivanej chickpea cultivars. Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Isfahan, Iran, P. 87.
4- Aliramaji F., Pourjam E., and Karegar A. 2006. Species of Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 from Jiroft and Kahnoj Region. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 42: 137-140 [473-489]. (In Persian with English abstract).
5- Alvani S., Mahdikhani Moghadam E., Rouhani H., and Mohammadi A. 2016. Species of Superfamily Aphelenchoidea (Nematoda: Rhabditida) Associated with (Crocus sativus, Berberis vulgaris, Ziziphus zizyphus) from South Khorasan Province. Journal of Plant Protection, 30 (2): 261-269. (In Persian with English abstract).
6- Azizi K., and Karegar A. 2014. Plant parasitic nematodes of legume fields and their distribution in Lorestan province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50 (3): 119-121 [219-235]. (In Persian with English abstract).
7- Baranovskaya I. A., and Haque M. M. 1968. [Aphelenchoides graminis n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 47 (4): 631-634. (In Russian).
8- Barooti S., Kheiri A., Tanha-Maafi Z., and Norozi R. 2000b. Study on plant parasitic nematode fauna in Kermanshah Province. Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Volume II: Plant diseases, Isfahan, Iran. P. 189.
9- Brzeski W. M. 1998. Nematodes of Tylenchina in Poland and temprate Europe Warszawa, Poland. Muzeum I Instytum Zoologii Polska Academia Nauk, 397 pp.
10- Castillo P., Navas-corets J. A., Landa B. B., Jimenez-diaz R. M., and Vovlas N. 2008. Plant-parasitic nematodes attacking chickpea and their in planta interactions with rhizobia and phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Disease, 92: 840-853.
11- De Grisse A. 1969. Redescription ou modification de quelques techniques utilisees dans Ľetude des nematodes phytoparasitaires. Meded Riijksfaculteit der landbouwetenschappen Gent, 34: 351-369.
12- Decraemer W., and Hunt D. G. 2006. Structure and classification. In R. N.. Perry & M. Moens (Eds.), plant nematology (pp: 4-32). Ghent, Belgium.
13- Ghaderi R., and Karegar A. 2014. Contribution to a revision of the genus Pratylenchoides Winslow, 1958 (Nematoda: Merliniidae), with redescription of P. erzurumensis Yüksel, 1977 from Iran. Zootaxa 3900: 339-369.
14- Grunwald N. J., Chen W., and Larsen R. C. 2004. Pea diseases and their management. Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables, 2: 301-331.
15- Kheiri A. 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaurboek Dodonaea, 40: 224-239.
16- Majd Taheri Z., Tanha Maafi Z., Subbotin S. A., Pourjam E., and Eskandari A. 2013. Molecular and phylogenetic studies on Pratylenchidae from Iran with additional data on Pratylenchus delattrei, Pratylenchoides alkani and two unknown species of Hirschmanniella and Pratylenchus. Nematology, 15, 1-19.
17- Mirzaipoor Z., Bazgir E., Azizi K., and Darvishnia M. 2016. Identification of plant-parasitic nematodes of potato fields in Lorestan province, Iran. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 39(1): 4 [39-58]. (In Persian with English abstract).
18- Mohammad Deimi A., M. Ghalandar M., and Barouti SH. 2008. Study of plant parasitic nematodes on bean in Khomein. Proceedings of the 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, ., Hamedan, Iran. 559 (Abstract.).
19- Niknam Gh. 1991. Identification of the plant parasitic nematodes Moghan Cultivation and industry co. farms, Iran. Ms Thesis. Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran, 140 pp. (In Persian with English abstract).
20- Riga, E., Porter L. D., Mojtahedi H., and Erickson D. 2008. Pratylenchus neglectus, Pratylenchus thornei, and Paratylenchus hamatus, nematodes causing yield reduction to dryland peas and Lentils in Idaho. Plant Disease, 92: 979.
21- Shahina F. 1996. A diagnostic compendium of the genus Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1894 (Nematoda: Aphelenchina) with some new records of the group from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 14: 1- 32.
22- Sharma S. B., Sikora R. A., Greco N., Di Vito M., and Caubel G. 1994. Screening techniques and sources of resistance to nematodes in cool season food legumes. In , F. J. Muehlbauer & W. J. Kaiser, (Eds.), Expanding the production and use of cool season food legumes (pp. 346-358). Springer-Science+Business Media, B.V.
23- Sher S. A. 1970 Revision of the genus Pratylenchoides Winslow, 1958 (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 37, 154-165.
24- Thompson J. P., Greco N., Eastwood R., Sharma S. B., and Scurrah M. 2000. Integrated control of nematodes of cool season food legumes. In R. Knight (Ed.), (pp. 491-566). Austuralia, Kluwer Academic.
25- Thorne G., and Malek R. B. 1968. Nematodes of the Northern Great Plains Part I. Tylenchida (Nemata: Secerentea). South Dakota Univrsity, Broojings. 111 pp.
26- Wasilewska L. 1965. Ditylenchus medicaginis sp. n., a new parasitic nematode from Poland (Nematoda: Tylenchidae). Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences C1. II, 13: 167-170.
27- Whitehead A. G., and Hemming J. R. 1965. A comparision of some quantitative methods of extracting vermiform nematodes from soil. Annual Applied Biology, 55: 25-38.