Temperature and Light Effects on Volunteer’s Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Secondary Dormancy and Germination

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources

2 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center

Abstract

Introduction: Rapeseeds are susceptible to shuttering during harvest increasing soil seed bank. Secondary dormancy is induced in shuttered seeds due to dryness and darkness conditions of soil in summer season and its level is different based on the seed types. Germination may be observed in seeds with low level of secondary dormancy. Before initiation of the next growing season and under undesirable environmental conditions seedlings will die. In contrast, high level of secondary dormancy in the other seeds is not eliminated and then they will emerge in the next growing season along with the crops as rapeseed volunteers. Rapeseed volunteers are considered as weeds in the next growing season and transfer target genes from crops to relative plants and weeds during pollination causing a decrease in quality, yield, and eventually purity of produced seeds.
Materials and Methods: Six rapeseeds cultivars and lines were selected with different secondary dormancy levels of low (Gor-o-16 and Gor-H-4), medium (Zarfam and RGS003), and high (Gor-o-4 and Gor-o-6) among 46 lines and/or cultivars of the previous study. Three replications of different seeds were placed in incubator at 20°C in darkness before induction of secondary dormancy (primarily secondary dormancy was determined). In fact, three replications of seeds with different levels of secondary dormancy were first exposed to inducing condition of secondary dormancy (-15 bar potential for 14 days) and then exposed to different treatments of temperature and light i.e. 20°C (darkness), 20°C (light), 25°C (darkness), 25°C (light), 30°C (darkness), 30°C (light), 3-30°C (darkness,12/12hours), 3-30°C (darkness/light (12/12 hours)), 20-30°C (darkness, 12/12 hours) and 20-30°C (darkness/light (12/12 hours)). Finally, secondary dormancy responses were analyzed.
Result and Discussion: Average primary germination in all seeds including cultivars and lines of rapeseeds before secondary dormancy induction was higher than 98% implying the absence of primary dormancy. After secondary dormancy induction, the highest germination was shown in the seeds with low level of seeds secondary dormancy at constant temperature in darkness and light. It was decreased in those with medium level of secondary dormancy by increasing temperature from 20 to 30°C in darkness, even though decreasing process was higher in light treatment. But it was the same in the seeds with secondary dormancy in comparison with medium levels of secondary dormancy in darkness and light. High level of secondary dormancy in G-O-6 and G-O-4 can be attributed to their responses to increased temperature and the light, respectively. Secondary dormancy was eliminated in seeds with high level of secondary dormancy by being exposed to 3-30°C treatment in darkness that implied replacement of alternative temperature with light requirement. Secondary dormancy was not completely eliminated for 20-30°C and 30°C treatments as some parts of seed population need alternative temperature and the others require light for complete elimination. Some studies suggested that light is required for complete elimination of secondary dormancy as it influences hormonal balance indirectly through phytochromic pathways. Moreover, the other studies reported that secondary dormancy can be partially eliminated by impacting heat shock proteins and light requirement. Rapeseeds appear to be photoblastic after inducing secondary dormancy. Further studies are required on the roles of phytochromes and hormonal balance pathways of ABA and GA in eliminating secondary dormancy of rapeseeds.
Conclusion: Different rapeseed responses with different levels of secondary dormancy after being placed in soil seed bank were simulated by laboratory conditions with emphasis on two environmental factors of temperature and light. The same response was shown by increasing constant temperature in rapeseed with different levels of secondary dormancy. Decrease in secondary dormancy was obvious in them and a greater increase was found for mentioned treatment in light. Secondary dormancy in all seeds was entirely eliminated after being exposed to alternative temperature and light. Complete elimination of secondary dormancy was observed in response to 3-30°C alternative temperature whether in darkness or darkness/light conditions. It was found that light requirement can be removed after induction of secondary dormancy by 3-30°C alternative temperature in darkness. However, secondary dormancy was only eliminated in some parts of seed population by 20-30°C and 30°C. In addition, light was observed as a critical factor for breaking for the others. It can be thus concluded that light was required for eliminating secondary dormancy in rapeseeds and seeds became photoblastic after the induction. Therefore, secondary dormancy can be removed before next growing season by being exposed to mentioned temperature and light.

Keywords


1- Amritphale D., Iyengar S., and Sharma R.K. 1989. Effect of light and storage temperature on seed germination in Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Haines. Journal of Seed Technology, 13:39-43.
2- Anderson R.L., and Soper G. 2003. Review of volunteer wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedling emergence and seed longevity in soil. Weed Technology, 17:620–626.
3- Batlla D., Grundy A., Dent K.C., Clay H.A., and Finch-Savage W.E. 2009. A quantitative analysis of temperature-dependent dormancy changes in Polygonum aviculare seeds. Weed Research, 49:428-438.
4- Batlla D., Kruk B.C., and Benech-Arnold R.L. 2004. Modelling changes in dormancy in weed soil seed banks: implications for the prediction of weed emergence. In: Benech-Arnold R.L., and Sanchez R.A. (Eds.), Handbook of Seed Physiology. Applications to Agriculture. Haworth Press, Inc., New York, pp. 245–264.
5- Benech-Arnold R.L., Sanchez R.A., Forcella F., Kruk B.C., and Ghersa C.M. 2000. Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil. Field Crops Research, 67:105–122.
6- Benitez-rodrigues J., Orozco-segovia A., and Rojasarechiga M. 2004. Light effect on seed germination of four Mammillari species from the Tehuacan-cuicatlan valley, central Mexico. Southwest. Nationalist Journal, 49(1):11-17.
7- Benvenuti S., and Macchia M. 1995. Effect of hypoxia on buried weed seeds germination. Weed Research, 35:343-351.
8- Benvenuti S., Dinelli G., and Bonetti A. 2004. Germination ecology of Leptochloa chinensis: a new weed in the Italian rice agroenvironment. Weed Research, 44:87-96.
9- Bewley J.D., Bradford K.J., Hilhorst H.W.M., and Nonogaki H. 2013. In Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy. Springer. Chapter, 6:287-288.
10- Borthwick H.A., Hendricks S.B., Parker M.W., Toole E.H., and Toole V.K. 1952. A reversible photoreaction controlling seed germination. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (USA), 38:662-666.
11- Botto J.F., Sanchez R.A., and Casal J.J. 1998. Burial conditions affect light responses of Datura ferox seeds. Seed Science Research, 8:423-429.
12- Chadoeuf R., Darmency H., Maillet J., and Renard M. 1998. Survival of buried seeds of interspecific hybrids between oilseed rape, hoary mustard and wild radish. Field Crops Research, 58:197-204.
13- Cristaudo A., Gresta F., Lucianai F., and Restuccia A. 2007. Effects of after-harvest period and environmental factors on seed dormancy of Amaranthus species. Weed Research, 47:327-334.
14- Derkx M.P.M., and Karssen C.M. 1993. Changing sensitivity to light and nitrate but not to gibberellins regulates seasonal dormancy patterns in Sisymbrium officinale seeds. Plant, Cell and Environment, 16:469-479.
15- Fei H., Tsang E., and Cutler A.J. 2007. Gene expression during seed maturation in Brassica napus in relation to the induction of secondary dormancy. Genomics, 89:419-428.
16- Finch-Savage W.E., and Footitt S. 2012. To germinate or not to germinate: a question of dormancy relief not germination stimulation. Seed Science Research, 22:243–248.
17- Finch-Savage W.E., and Leubner-Metzger G. 2006. Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytologist, 171:501– 523.
18- Finch-Savage W.E., Cadman C.S.C., Toorop P.E., Lynn J.R., and Hilhorst H.W.M. 2007. Seed dormancy release in Arabidopsis Cvi by dry after-ripening, low temperature, nitrate and light shows common quantitative patterns of gene expression directed by environmentally specific sensing. The Plant Journal, 51:60–78.
19- Finkelstein R.R. 2010. The role of hormones during seed development and germination. Pages 549–573. In Davies PJ, ed. Plant Hormones: Biosynthesis, Signal Transduction, Action. Ithaca, New York: Springer.
20- Footitt S., Douterelo-Soler I., Clay H., and Finch-Savage W.E. 2011. Dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis seeds is controlled by seasonally distinct hormone-signaling pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108:20236–20241.
21- Forcella F., Benech-Arnold R.L., Sanchez R.A., and Ghersa C.M. 2000. Modeling seedling emergence. Field Crops Research, 67:123–139.
22- Goggin D.E., Powles S.B., Toorop P.E., and Steadman K.J. 2011. Dark mediated dormancy release in stratified Lolium rigidum seeds is associated with higher activities of cell wall modifying enzymes and an apparent increase in gibberellin sensitivity. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168:527–533.
23- Goggin D.E., Steadman K.J., and Powles S.B. 2008. Green and blue light photoreceptors are involved in maintenance of dormancy in imbibed annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds. New Phytologist, 180:81–89.
24- Gruber S., Pekrun C., and Claupein W. 2004. Population dynamics of volunteer oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) affected by tillage. European Journal of Agronomy, 20: 351–361.
25- Gubler F., Hughes T., Waterhouse P., and Jacobsen J. 2008. Regulation of Dormancy in Barley by Blue Light and After-Ripening: Effects on Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Metabolism. Plant Physiology, 147:886–896.
26- Gulden R.H., Shirtliffe S.J., and Thomas A.G. 2003. Secondary seed dormancy prolongs persistence of volunteer canola in western Canada. Weed Science, 51:904-913.
27- Haile T.A., and Shirtliffe S.J. 2014. Effect of Harvest Timing on Dormancy Induction in Canola Seeds. Weed Science, 62:548–554.
28- Jha P., Norsworthy J.K., Riley M.B., and Bridges Jr.W. 2010. Annual changes in temperature and light requirements for germination of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) seeds retrieved from soil. Weed Science, 58:426-432.
29- Jiang Z., Xu G., Jing Y., Tang W., and Lin R. 2015. Phytochrome B and REVEILLE1/2-mediated signaling controls seed dormancy and germination in Arabidopsis. Nature Communications, 1:10.
30- Kambizi L., Adebola P.O., and Afolayan A.J. 2006. Effects of temperature, pre-chilling and light on seed germination of Withania somnifera; a high value medicinal plant. South African Journal of Botany, 72:11-14.
31- Kendall S.L., Hellwege A., Marriot P., Whalley C., Graham I.A., and Penfield S. 2011. Induction of dormancy in Arabidopsis summer annuals requires parallel regulation of DOG1 and hormone metabolism by low temperature and CBF transcription factors. Plant Cell, 23:2568–2580.
32- Khan A.A., and Karssen C.M. 1980. Induction of secondary dormancy in Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. seeds by osmotic and high temperature treatments and its prevention by light and growth regulators. Plant Physiology, 66:175-181.
33- Koo H.J., Park S.M., Kim K.P., Pill K., Suh M.C., Lee M.O., Lee S-K., Xinli X., and Hong C.B. 2015. Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination. Plant Physiology, 167:1030–1038.
34- Lopez-Granados F., and Lutman, P.J.W. 1998. Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Dormancy and Germination of Volunteer Oilseed Rape Seed (Brassica napus). Weed Science, 46(4):419-423.
35- Lutman P.J.W. 1993. The occurrence and persistence of volunteer oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Aspect of Applied Biology, 35:29-36.
36- Lutman P.J.W., Freeman S.E., and Pekrun C. 2003. The long-term persistence of seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in arable fields. Journal of Agricultural Science, 141:231-240.
37- Mallory-Smith C., and Zapiola M. 2008. Gene flow from glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Management Science, 64:428–440.
38- Martin R.C., Pluskota W.E., Nonogaki H. 2010. Interaction of ABA and GA metabolism. In: Pua EC, Davey MR (eds) Plant developmental biology: biotechnological perspectives. Springer, Heidelberg, 383–404.
39- Nambara E., Okamoto M., Tatematsu K., Yano R., Seo M., and Kamiya Y. 2010. Abscisic acid and the control of seed dormancy and germination. Seed Science Research, 20:55–67.
40- Nee G., Obeng-Hinneh E., Sarvari P., and Nakabayashi K. 2015. Secondary dormancy in Brassica napus is correlated with enhanced BnaDOG1transcript levels. Seed Science Research, 25(2):221-229.
41- Oh E., Yamaguchi S., Hu J., Yusuke J., Jung B., Paik I., Lee H-S., Sun T., Kamiya Y., and Choia G. 2007. Phytochrome downstream signaling. Plant Cell, 19:1192–1208.
42- Oh E., Yamaguchi S., Kamiya Y., Bae G., Chung W-I., and Choi G. 2006. Light activates the degradation of PIL5 protein to promote seed germination through gibberellin in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 47:124–139.
43- Pekrun C., Lutman P.J.W., and Lopez-Granados F. 1996. Population dynamics of volunteer rape and possible means of control. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress. Copenhagen, 1–6.
44- Pons T.L. 2000. Seed responses to light. In Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities (Fenner M., ed.). CABI, London, p. 237-260.
45- Probert R.J. 2000. The role of temperature in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination. In Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities (M. Fenner, ed.). CABI, London, p. 261-292.
46- Rizzardi M.A., Luiz A.R., Roman E.S., and Vargas L. 2009. Effect of cardinal temperature and water potential on Morning Glory (Ipomoea triloba) seed germination Planta Daninha, 27:13-21.
47- Roberts H.A., and Lockett P.M. 1978. Seed dormancy and field emergence in Solanum nigrum L. Weed Research, 18:231-241.
48- Saatkamp A., Affre L., Baumberger T., Dumas P.J., Gasmi A., Gachet S., and Arene F. 2011. Soil depth detection by seeds and diurnally fluctuating temperatures: different dynamics in 10 annual plants. Plant and Soil, 349:331–340.
49- Schatzki J., Allam M., Kloppel C., Nagel M., Borner A., and Mollers C. 2013. Genetic variation for secondary seed dormancy and seed longevity in a set of black-seeded European winter oilseed rape cultivars. Plant Breeding, 132:174–179.
50- Shayanfar A., Ghaderi-Far F., Behmaram R., Soltani A., and Sadeghipour, H.R. 2017. Assessment of germination and secondary dormancy behaviours of lines and cultivars of canola. Agricultural Crop Management, (In Presian with English abstract). In Press.
51- Singh K.K., Gurung B., Rai L.K., and Nepal L.H. 2010. The influence of temperature, light and pre-treatment on the seed germination of critically endangered Sikkim Himalayan Rhododendron (R. niveum Hook. f.). Journal of American Science, 6:172-177.
52- Tlig T., Gorai M., and Neffati M. 2008. Germination responses of Diplotaxis harra to temperature and salinity. Flora, 203:421-428.