Identification of Three Species Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Belonging to the Family Tylenchidae from Orchards in Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 ferdowsi university of mashhad

2 Ferdousi university of mashhad

3 Ferdouwsi university of mashhad

4 Urmia University of Medical Sciences


Introduction: The rose family includes many economically important fruit trees known as stone fruits in the genus Prunus, with a basic chromosome number x=8, within the subfamily Pronoidaea. The subfamily is unique among the rosaceous subfamilies, in bearing a fleshy fruit called a drupe with a hard endocarp, often called the stone. Many Prunus species are compatible with the link. This adaptation is very important in the production of commercial fruit. The purpose of using base-link compounds is that plant materials adapt to soil types and climatic conditions. There are different genera of plant parasitic nematodes in rhizosphere such as Amplimerlinius, Basiria, Boleodorus, Coslenchus, Discotylenchus, Filenchus and Psilenchus. Some of them are endoparasites and others ectoparasites. From the economic point of view, fruit-bearing trees are considered to be high-value agricultural products that are cultivated in most parts of the country. Urmia city is one of the major suppliers of fruit in the country. According to Agricultural Statistics in 2013, West Azerbaijan province with 99205.97 hectares of garden products produces 82.3 percent of the total land production in the country, which is ranked seventh in the country. Also in the same year, producing 1075465.73 tons of produce, 74.6% of the total production of garden products and the third rank of the country. In the year 92, the total amount of the country's garden products (about 227 thousand hectares) is related to the nuclear trees, of which 1.89 million tons were obtained, accounting for 11.84 percent of the total production of horticultural products Country is West Azerbaijan province has 2677.06 hectares of unpolluted levels and 1911.20 hectares of fertilized surfaces dedicated to nuclear products, of which 105575.26 tons of nuclear fruit production were produced from these lands. Therefore, due to the importance of nematodes from different aspects such as their high diversity, economic damage to plants in high populations, the intensification of damage to other pathogens in plants, and with regard to the few studies carried out, in particular in the field of plant-parasitic nematodes of the rhizosphere of nucleated fruit trees in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this research was to investigate the plant parasitic nematodes associated with stone fruit trees in the Urmia county.
Material and Methods: In order to identify plant-parasitic nematodes of stone fruits in Urmia, 85 soil samples were collected during 2013 and 2014. Soil samples were washed and then extracted by centrifugal flotation technique, killed, fixed and transferred to Glycerin by using the method of De Grisse 1969 and Jenkins 1969. The permanent slides were prepared and nematodes were studied by light microscopy, based on morphological and morphometric characters.
Result and Discussion: In this research, 11 species of seven different genera of Tylenchidae family were identified as follows:
Basiria duplexa, B. macrostriata, Boleodorus thylactus, Coslenchus costatus, C. gracilis, Discotylenchus longicauda, Filenchus cylindricaudus, F. vulgaris, Irantylenchus clavidorus, Psilenchus aestuarius and P. iranicus.
In this research, the categorization of the Daily and Blacksters, which is provided up to the family level, is considered, and for lower levels, other sources are used as needed, as stated in the text. Among these identified species, Basiria macrostriata from Nazlou and Coslenchus gracilis and Discotylenchus longicauda from Somaybradoust were reported as a new record for Iran. Basiria macrostriata was identified by these characters: cuticle coarsely striated being 1.8-2 (µm) apart on mid-body region. Lateral field with four crenate incisures. Head almost continuous and rounded. A Slender stylet with the flanged knob. Basal bulb more or less pyriform. Excretory pore situated at 89 (µm) from anterior end. Spermatheca sac-like and elongate. Slender filiform tail with a pointed terminus. Coslenchus gracilis was identified by cuticular annuli flattened indistinct. Stylet knobs small, 7-8(µm), rounded or slightly elongated. Median bulb spherical, Vagina strongly swollen, slightly anteriorly directed. Spermathecabilobed and containing minute sperm. Annulation on tail indistinct. Discotylenchus longicauda was identified by body straight, maximum width 9-11(µm). cuticular annuli indistinct. The Lateral field comprising a single ridge formed by two smooth incisures. Stylet thin, cone 1/3 of its length. Median bulb spindle-shaped. Vulva transverse, open. Tail straight, elongated, filiform, gradually tapering to the rounded tip.
Conclusion: Among these species in this research, from 11 species of seven different genera of plant parasitic nematodes, Basiria macrostriata, Coslenchus gracilis, and Discotylenchus longicauda were identified for the first time from Iran.


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