Evaluation of Allelopathic Effects of Some Plants Using Sandwich Method

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2 Islamic Azad University

Abstract

Introduction: Widespread use of herbicides in agriculture has led to loss of natural habitats, increase in pollution, generating herbicide-resistant weeds, risk of food poisoning and lower food quality. So new approaches are required in management, production, and utilization of the existing agricultural practices for sustainable agriculture. There are several techniques in this regard including allelopathy. Use of allelopathic compounds is a new approach for lowering undesirable effects of herbicides on the environment and fighting weeds resistant to herbicides. Recently allelopathy knowledge has been developed because of innovative methods and collaboration among scientists and achievements in suitable bioassays. Nowadays, old methods such as petri dishes or activated charcoal method have been replaced by new methods such as dish pack, sandwich, rhizosphere, and plant box. Researchers have indicated that many problems might be solved in allelopathy studies through these methods. Sandwich method is considered as one of the alternative methods for the old ones and is a very useful tool for screening the allelopathic effect of leaf litter under laboratory conditions. This method is a less time-consuming bioassay method and could be applied to screen more samples. Besides, allelopathic properties of many plants are evaluated using fewer plant samples through this method.
Materials and Methods: In this study, using a sandwich method, allelopathic properties of 55 plant species (59 samples) from 27 families were studied. The majority of plants were collected in 2016 from the different regions of South Khorasan province, Iran. The samples authenticated. Then, different parts of plants used for laboratory studies at Agricultural Researches Institute in Birjand University, Iran. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Great Lake 366) was used as an index because of its seeds sensitivity in chemical compounds, and allelopathic properties on the growth of seedlings of these lettuce varieties were evaluated. To investigate the allelopathic activity, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 3 replications. In order to assess the allelopathic activity of the selected plants, multi-dishes were used with 6 holes. Each hole had 3.5 cm diameter (Nunc Company, Japan). Ten milligrams of dried samples were placed in all three wells in the upper row and fifty milligrams was placed in rest of three lower wells of the six-well multi-dish plate. For the preparation of the growth medium, commercially available agar was applied. The medium was prepared as 0.5 % (w/v) and autoclaved at 115 °C for 20 min. 5 mL of autoclaved agar was added to each well of the multi-dish plate containing plant samples. After gelatinizing the agar within 30–45 min at room temperature, 5 mL agar was added again to all wells as the second layer and left at room temperature for gelatinized again. This made a sandwich of dried leaves by two layers of agar. Five lettuce seeds were put on the agar surface of the wells and all treatments were replicated three times. Each side of the prepared multi-dishes was then sealed by parafilm and wrapped in aluminum foil to protect them from light penetration and then were placed in an incubator (25°C). After 3 days, length of radicle and hypocotyl were recorded and monitored compared to control samples. Agar medium without plant samples was used as the control.
Results and Discussion: Growth of radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce seedling was present in the form of either inhibition (positive value) or promotion (negative value). The results showed that among the studied plants, Mentha spicata, Nepeta cataria, and Nepeta glomerulosa herbs highly affected growth inhibitory on radicle (96.4 %) and hypocotyl (94.8 %) of lettuce seedlings. Moreover, leaves of Leptorhabdus parviflora and Allium oschanini seeds strongly showed allelopathic effects by inhibiting the growth of radicle (91.0 %) and hypocotyl (85.2 %) of lettuce. Viola tricolor flowers plant had allelopathic effect as a deterrent growth only on radicle growth (90.0 %) and did not have significant effects on hypocotyl. In the current research, the introductory screening was done on 55 plants to recognize the suspected plants containing allelopathic compounds. However, further research is needed on these plants to figure out their effects on weeds.
Conclusions: The plants introduced in this research are mainly contain compounds such as Carvone, Limonene, α-Pinen, β-Pinen, 1,8 cineol, Thymol, Anethol, Camphor, Nepetalactone, β-caryophyllene and Geraniol. The results suggested that introduced plants may fulfill the organic farming and production of naturally originated herbicides. Therefore, more attention is needed for the future research focusing on finding the allelopathic responsible compounds by GC-MS and NMR techniques for using in organic agriculture. It is also necessary to investigate the ability of herbivorous of these compounds specifically.

Keywords


1- Amini S., Azizi M., Joharchi M.R., Shafei M.N., Moradinezhad F., and Fujii Y. 2014. Determination of allelopathic potential in some medicinal and wild plant species of Iran by dish pack method. Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology, 26(3):189-199.
2- Azirak S., and Karaman S. 2007. Allelopathic effect of some essential oils and components on germination of weed species. Soil and Plant Science, 58(1): 88-92.
3- Bais H.P., Vepachedu R., Gilroy S., Callaway R.M., and Vivanco J.M. 2003. Allelopathy and Exotic Plant Invasion: From Molecules and Genes to Species Interactions. Science, 301:1377-1380.
4- Bertholdsson N.O., and Tuvesson S. 2005. Possibilities to use marker assisted selection to improve alleopathic activity in cereals. p. 67-71. Proceedings of the COST SUSVAR/ECO-PB Workshop on Organic Plant Breeding Strategies and the Use of Molecular Markers. 17-19 Janury, 2005. Driebergen, the Netherlands.
5- Chalkos D., Kadoglidou K., Karamanoli K., Fotiou C., Pavlatou-Ve A.S., Eleftherohorinos I.G., Constantinidou H.I.A., and Vokou D. 2010. Mentha spicata and Salvia fruticosa composts as soil amendments in tomato cultivation. Plant and Soil, 332(1):495–509.
6- Charudattan R., and Dinoor A. 2000. Biological Control of Weeds using plant pathogens: accomplishments and limitations. Crop Protection, 19:691-695.
7- Chauhana R.S., Kaula M.K., Shahia A.K., Kumara A., Rama G., and Tawa A. 2009. Chemical composition of essential oils in Mentha spicata L. accession [IIIM (J) 26] from North-West Himalayan region. Industrial Crops and Products, 29:654–656.
8- Duke S.O., Duyan F.E., and Rimando A.M. 1998. Natural product as tools for weed management. Japan Weed Science, 3:1-11.
9- Duke S.O., Dayan F.E., Romagni J.G., and Rimando A.M. 2000. Natural products as sources of herbicides: current status and future trends. Weed Research, 40:99–111.
10- Fujii Y., Parvez S.Sh., Parvez M.M., Ohmae Y., and Iida O. 2003. Screening of 239 medicinal plant species for allelopathic activity using the sandwich method. Weed Biology and Management, 3:233–241.
11- Hijazi A. 2000. Allelopathy: Self-Essay and Dexromatism (Interactions of Beings with Each Other), Tehran University Institute Press.12- Isik D., Kaya E., Ngouajio M., and Mennan H. 2009. Cover crops for weed management and yield improvement in organic lettuce (Lactuca sativa) production. Phytoparasitica, 37:193–203.
13- Kadioglu I., Yanar Y., and Asav U. 2005. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants. Environmental Biology, 26 (2):169-73.
14- Kalantari N., Aberoomand A.P., and Larijani K. 2015. Volatile components of Perovskia abrotanoides and Nepeta glomerulosa from Iran. Applied and Basic Sciences, 9 (10):1686-1690.
15- Macias F.A., Molinillo J.M., Varela R.M., and Galindo J.C. 2007. Allelopathy – a natural alternative for weed control –Review. Pest Management Science, 63:327-348.
16- Nishida N., Tamotsu S., Nagata N., Saito C., and Sakai A. 2005. Allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: Inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings. Chemical Ecology, 31(5):1187-203.
17- Qian H., Xu X., Chen W., Jiang H., Jin Y., Liu W., and Fu Z. 2009. Allelochemical stress causes oxidative damage and inhibition of photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris. Chemosphere, 75:368–375.
18- Razavi S.M. 2012. Chemical Composition and Some Allelopathic Aspects of Essential Oils of (Prangos ferulacea L.) Lindl at Different Stages of Growth. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14:349-356.
19- Saharkhiz M.J., Zadnour P., and Kakouei F. 2016. Essential oil analysis and phytotoxic activity of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.). Essential Oils and Natural Products 4(1):40-45.
20- Sanchez-Munoz B.A., Aguilar M.I., King-Diaz B., Rivero J.F., and Lotina-Hennsen B. 2012. The Sesquiterpenes β-Caryophyllene and Caryophyllene Oxide Isolated from Senecio salignus Act as Phytogrowth and Photosynthesis Inhibitors. Molecules, 17:1437-1447.
21- Singh H.P., Batish D.R., kaur Sh., Arora K., and Kohli R.K. 2006. ɑ-Pinene Inhibits Growth and Induces Oxidative Stress in Roots. Annals of Botany, 98:1261–1269.
22- Snoussi M., Noumi E., Trabelsi N., Flamini G., Papetti A., and De Feo V. 2015. Mentha spicata Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Vibrio spp. Strains. Molecules, 20(8):14402-14424.
23- Xuan T.D., Elzaawely A.A., Deba F., Fukuta M., and Tawata S. 2006. Mimosine in Leucaena as a potent bio-herbicide. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 26:89–97.
24- Znini M., Bouklah M., Majidi L., Kharchouf S., Aouniti A., Bouyanzer A., Hammouti B., Costa J., and Al-Deyab S.S. 2011. Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Mentha spicata Essential Oil on the Corrosion of Steel in Molar Hydrochloric Acid. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 6:691 –704.