Effect of Sulfonylurea Herbicides and Crop Residues on Weed Control and Wheat Hrain Yield

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 shiraz university

2 Shiraz University

Abstract

Introduction: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops among cereals. Many factors could be responsible for low yield in wheat, but one of the major causes is weed infestation. The efficacy of any herbicide primarily depends on selectivity and the dose of application. Use of herbicides is an effective and efficient means of weed management. In many cases, there are no practical alternatives to chemical weed control methods. However, not only all kinds of weeds do not control by one type of herbicide and continuous use of that, but also lead to increase weed resistance to herbicides over the time (Hall et al. 1999). Of the many weeds that infest wheat fields across southern Iran, wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum L.), foxtail (Setaria viridis L.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.) are the major weeds causing economic losses .Baghestani et al. (2007) reported that sulfosulfuron at 19.95 and 24.90 g a.i. ha-1 were proper application rates for broadleaf and grass weed control in wheat fields. Sij et al. (2016) reported that sulfonylurea herbicides were more efficient in terms of weed control. Lair and Redente (2004) reported that sulfonylurea herbicide application increased stability and biomass of crop as much as 43% over auxin herbicide and simultaneously reduced the grass weeds up to 71%. Golparvar et al. (2012) reported that limited doses of herbicides provided the same yield as weed free plots, therefore, this could be recommended to the farmers. The present study initiated to investigate the effect of some sulfonylurea herbicides on weed control and grain and biological yield of winter wheat under with/without wheat residue treatments.
Materials and Methods: A field experiment was carried out in split-plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replicates at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, in 2014 growing season. Treatments included wheat residue at two levels (0 and 1850 kg/ha) as main plot in combination with each of the three of herbicides (Total, Apyrus and Atlantis) in two concentrations (recommended dose and 30% over the recommended dose) as Subplots. A weed infest plot (no herbicide application) was used as control. Wheat (Shiraz cultivar) planted on 5th November 2014, by Pneumatic planter at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 and maintaining 20 cm distance between crop rows. The plot size was 5m × 5m. Measurement of the effects included weed dry weight, weed density, wheat height, grain yield and its components. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance using SAS statistical software and means were compared by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at the 0.05 level of significance.
Results and Discussion: Investigation on the effects of different application doses of Total, Apyrus and Atlantis to control weeds in wheat fields under applied wheat residue showed that the wheat residue had negative effect on the efficiency of three types of herbicides and increased weed dry weight by 41.4 percent, as compared to without wheat residue. Wheat residue incorporated to soil, reduced biological yield (from 14865.60 to 12340.40 kg ha-1) in comparison to without residue treatment. Three herbicides reduced weed biomass and the highest (43.56%) and lowest (18.7%) weed control recorded compared to weedy check. In comparison to weed infest control, Total increased wheat grain yield (from 3329.88 to 5283.19 kg ha-1), followed by Apyrus and Atlantis with 46 and 21 % increase in wheat grain yield, respectively. Application of Total, Apyrus and Atlantis herbicides, had increased wheat biological yield in comparison with weed infest control by 30.7, 26.8 and 13.6 %, respectively. Additive dose of herbicides application had better effect on weeds control and increased wheat grain and biological yield more than the recommended dose. Baghestani et al. (2007) reported that the wheat yield increased with increasing application dose of herbicide without any crop injury. Wheat grain yield for Total applied at the recommended dose was 5090.99 kg ha-1 but no significant effect was observed when an additive dose of the Apyrus herbicide was applied. This could be due to strong weed control effect of the Total herbicide at this dose. Interaction effect of herbicides and application dose indicated that Total at additive dose resulted in highest seed yield and weed control. Wheat residue had negative effect on weed control and the highest weed dry weight (~48.5%) observed when Total was applied under no residue conditions.
Conclusions: All herbicide treatments increased wheat biological and grain yield as compared with the weed infested control. Application of Atlantis did not provide acceptable weed control in wheat. It is concluded that the most effective herbicide treatment was Total that provided maximum reduction in overall weed dry matter and obtained maximum grain yield. Atlantis had the lowest effect on weed control compared with the other herbicides (Total and Apyrus) and this could be due to poor weed control of the herbicide at both doses.

Keywords


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