Evaluation of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) Control Using Nicosulfuron + Rimsulfuron in Mixture with 2,4-D + MCPA

Document Type : Research Article


1 Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Introduction: A few herbicides have been registered to control broadleaf weeds in Iran. Sulfonylureas are dual purpose herbicides to control narrow and broadleaf weeds, but these herbicides control narrow-leaf weeds better than broadleaf weeds. Hence, it is better to mix these herbicides with other broadleaf herbicides by different site of action to control broadleaf weeds effectively. Although the most of herbicide mixtures have been antagonism, but studies have shown that phenoxy herbicides have supplementary effects on broadleaf weeds in mixture with sulfonylureas.
Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron (Ultima) in mixture with 2,4-D + MCPA (U46 Combi Fluid) on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) at the four-to six-true leaf stage, an experiment was done in 2012 at the greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad-Iran. Experiment was performed as a randomized complete block design with seven rates of herbicide mixtures and four replicates. The plants were sprayed using a greenhouse bench sprayer equipped by 8002 single nozzle with an even spray pattern delivering 200 L ha-1 at 300 kPa and boom height of 50 cm. Herbicides doses in mixture were considered based on effective dose required for 50% reduction in aboveground dry matter of redroot pigweed in pre-test experiments and joint action model calculations. ED50 doses of nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron and 2,4-D + MCPA applied alone were 22.33 and 55.98 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. The ratio of the herbicides in binary mixtures were 100:0, 87.5:12.5, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 12.5:87.5 and 0:100. The dose-response curves in binary fixed-ratio mixture were fitted simultaneously within each treatment using a three-parameter Gompertz model (with the lower limit equal to zero) available in the drc add-on package to the R programme. A Box-Cox transform-both-sides approach was performed to achieve variance homogeneity. The goodness-of-fit was assessed by graphical analyses of residuals and F-test for lack-of-fit. The results of dose-response curves of herbicides in mixture by 50 and 90 percent reduction in aboveground dry matter of redroot pigweed were plotted on the graph and compared to the ADM isobole. Points above the isoboles indicate that the joint action of a mixture is lower than predicted by ADM, while points below the isoboles indicate a joint action higher than predicted by ADM. In the present study, we examined whether the predicted ED50 and ED90 doses of the herbicide mixture was contained in the 95% confidence interval of the estimated ED50 and ED90 doses. This approach inevitably overestimates the number of significant deviations, because it does not incorporate a variation around the isobole. Significant deviations were termed antagonism if higher and synergism if lower than the corresponding estimated ED50 and ED90 doses. As the results with the herbicide mixtures originate from this experiment, it was necessary to standardize the x- and y-axes so that the ED50 and ED90 doses of the herbicides applied separately were always fixed to 1.
Results and Discussion: Results revealed that 2,4-D + MCPA in mixture with nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron has lower effect on redroot pigweed in comparison with where herbicides applied alone. So that all of observations were located outside of isobole line, irrespective of response level and strong antagonism was observed in mixture of two herbicides. Interference was observed more especially in mixtures that nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron ratios was higher than or equal with 2,4-D + MCPA. In these mixture ratios, observations were located far from isobole line at ED50 and ED90 response levels in comparison with higher mixture ratios of 2,4-D + MCPA. There may be interference between two herbicides in mixture for absorption into and translocation to site of action. Herbicides formulation and adjuvants may be led to increase or decrease in efficiency of herbicides in mixture according to ADM. Studies have shown that formulation of one herbicide in mixture has important effect on active ingredient absorption of herbicides into the plants. Therefore, it is possible plants have had a chance to detoxify herbicide molecules in mixture at the same rates that herbicides applied alone. Hence, it was required higher rates in mixture to reach an effective dose at the site of action by 50 or 90 percent reduction in aboveground dry matter of redroot pigweed. Therefore, the efficiency of herbicides has been reduced in mixture compared to applied herbicides alone.
Mixture of 2,4-D + MCPA with nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron does not recommend to control of this weed, because impose more herbicides rates to environment. Therefore, other binary mixtures must be evaluated using nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron in mixture with synthetic phenoxy herbicides or other broadleaf herbicides.


1- Baghestani M.A., Zand E., Pourazar R., Esfandiari H., and Mamnouie A. 2009. Effect of various herbicides in corn fields. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection. (In Persian with English abstract)
2- Barker M.A., Thompson L., Jr., and Godley F.M. 1984. Control of annual morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Science, 32:813–818.
3- Cavan G., Cussans J., and Moss S.R. 2000. Modelling different cultivation and herbicide strategies for their effect on herbicide resistance in Alopecurus myosuroides. Weed Research, 40:561–568.
4- Dobbels A.F., and Kapusta G. 1993. Post-emergence weed control in corn (Zea mays) with nicosulfuron combinations. Weed Technology, 7:844–850.
5- Gressel J. 1990. Synergizing herbicides: Review. Weed Science, 5:49–82.
6- Hart S.E. 1997. Interacting effects of MON 12000 and CGA-152005 with other herbicides in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 45:434–438.
7- Hart S.E., and Penner D. 1993. Atrazine reduces primisulfuron transport to meristems of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 41:28–33.
8- Hart S.E., and Wax L.M. 1996. Dicamba antagonizes grass weed control with imazethapyr by reducing foliar absorption. Weed Technology, 10:828–834.
9- Hart S.E., Kells J.J., and Penner D. 1992. Influence of adjuvants on the efficacy, absorption, and spray retention of primisulfuron. Weed Technology, 6:592–598.
10- Hartley M.J., and Popay A.J. 1992. Yield losses due to weeds in sugarbeet, corn and dwarf beans. p. 52-54. Proceedings of the 45th Newzeland plant protection conference, 11-13 Aug. 1992. Wellingto, Newzeland.
11- Himmelstein F.J., and Durgy R.J. 1996. Common ragweed control in field corn with postemergence herbicides. Proceedings, Northeastern Weed Science Society, 50: 161.
12- Hope J.H. 1986. Performance of combinations of 2,4-DB with new postemergence broadleaf and grass herbicides in soybeans. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 39: 84–85.
13- Isaacs M.A., Hatzios K.K., Wilson H.P., and Toler J. 2006. Halosulfuron and 2,4-D Mixtures’ Effects on Common lambsquarter’s (Chenopodium album). Weed Technology, 20:137–142.
14- Kalnay P.A., Glenn S., and Phillips II. W.H. 1995. Hemp dogbane and lambsquarters control in no-till corn with MON 12037 tank mixtures. Proceedings, Northeastern Weed Science Society, 49: 38.
15- Kudsk P., and Mathiassen S.K. 1994. Effect of broadleaf herbicides on imazamethabenz-methyl performance on wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Weed Research, 34:251-263.
16- Kudsk P., and Mathiassen S.K. 2004. Joint action of amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Research, 44:313–322.
17- Mathiassen S.K., and Kudsk P. 1993. Joint action of sulfonylurea herbicides and MCPA. Weed Research, 33:441-447.
18- Menbere H., and Ritter R.L. 1995. Postemergence control of triazine-resistant common lambsquarters in no-till corn. Proceedings, Northeastern Weed Science Society, 49: 92.
19- Mueller T.C., Witt W.W., and Barrett M. 1989. Antagonism of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) control with fenoxaprop, haloxyfop, and sethoxydim by 2,4-D. Weed Technology, 3:86–89.
20- Myers P.F., and Coble H.D. 1992. Antagonism of graminicide activity on annual grass species by imazethapyr. Weed Technology, 6:333–338.
21- Nalewaja J.D., and Matysiak R. 1992. 2,4-D and salt combinations affect glyphosate phytotoxicity. Weed Technology, 6:322-327.
22- Parks R.J., Curran W.S., Roth G.W., Hartwig N.L., and Calvin D.D. 1995. Common lambsquarters (Common lambsquarters) control in corn with postemergence herbicides and cultivation. Weed Technology, 9:728–735.
23- Ritz C., and Streibig J.C. 2005. Bioassay analysis using R. Journal of Statistical Software, 12 (5):1–22.
24- Sarabi V., Ghanbari A., Rashed Mohassel M.H., Nassiri Mahallati M., and Rastgoo M. 2014. Evaluation of broadleaf weeds control with some post-emergence herbicides in maize (Zea mays L.) in Iran. International Journal of Plant Production 8 (1):19-32.
25- Schuster C.L., Al-Khatib K., and Dille J.A. 2007. Mechanism of antagonism of mesotrione on sulfonylurea herbicides. Weed Science, 55:429–434.
26- Streibig J.C., Kudsk P., and Jensen J.E. 1998. A general joint action model for herbicide mixtures. Pesticide Science, 53:21-28.
27- Streibig J.C., Rudemo M., and Jensen J.E. 1993. Dose-response models. p. 29-55. In J.C. Streibig, and P. Kudsk (eds.) Herbicide Bioassay. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
28- Vencill W. 2002. Herbicide Handbook. 8th ed. Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, KS.
29- Weaver S.E. 1983. Pigweed (Redroot, Green and Smooth). Factsheet ND: AGDEX 642. Ministry of Agriculture and food, Ontario, Canada.
30- Wrubel R.P., and Gressel J. 1994. Are mixtures useful for delaying the rapid evolution of resistance? A case study. Weed Technology, 8:635-648.
31- Zand E., Baghestani M.A., Pourazar R., Sabeti P., Gezeli F., Khayyami M.M., and Razzazi A. 2009. Efficacy evaluation of ultima (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron), lumax (mesotrione + S metolachlor + terbuthylazine) and amicarbazone in comparison with current herbicides to control of weeds in corn. Journal of Plant Protection 23, 42-55. (In Persian with English abstract)
32- Zhang J., Hamill A.S., and Weaver S.E. 1995. Antagonism and synergism between herbicides: trends from previous studies. Weed Technology, 9:86–90.
33- Zimdahl R.L. 1993. Fundamentals of Weed Science. Academic Press, INC.