Electromagnetic Field Effects on Production of Salicylic Acid and Phenylalanine ammonia lyase in Tobacco Infected with Potato Virus X (PVX)

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources

2 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute

3 University of Zabol

Abstract

Introduction: Potato virus x (PVX) is one of the most devastating viruses in the fields of tobacco and no effective method to control the virus has been provided yet. Magnetism is known as one of the environmental stresses that can directly or indirectly affect the plants, especially plants under stress. The magnetic fields can have beneficial affects plants.
Materials and Methods: In the present study to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on PVX control, an experiment based on completely randomized design with eleven treatments (10, 50 and 90 mT in a period of 60, 90 and 120 minutes on tobacco seedlings infected with the virus and two control, and the other one is free from analog infected with the virus) in tobacco seedlings carried on six repeats.. After inoculation at the four-leaf stage and after 14 days, the amount of turbidity virus infection rate is calculated and then ensure equality of tobacco seedlings, where the electromagnetic device. 30 days after applying an electromagnetic field analysis of the results of ELISA test two samples were tested with antisera Chndhmsanh of PVX. The amount of salicylic acid and the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia in systemic acquired resistance and plant defense mechanisms are involved, the treatments were measured, for evaluation of HPLC as salicylic acid and phenylalanine ammonia-based assessment of trans-cinnamic acid was used.
Results and Discussion: Statistical analysis ELISA test results revealed that there is a significant difference between treatments 0/05. So that the treatment was a no pollution treatment and 11 who were infected but had not been exposed to the electromagnetic field had a significant difference compared to other treatments, among the treatments that were exposed to the electromagnetic field treatment 8 (100 mT, 120 minutes) showed the lowest OD in ELISA and later treatment 7 (50 mT and 60 minutes) was the lowest OD, the two treatments were observed in less than two OD. If the treatment number 11, OD (2/85) and in pollution-free treatment that was an OD (0/35) was observed. The OD also in other treatments were not exposed between 2.00 to 2.46 were visible. The results showed that the treatment 11 (infected control) actually infected treatment that has not been exposed, and treatment 8 is the most desirable treatment for a reduction in the OD, the difference in the OD are available 0/98. The results suggest that the electromagnetic field decreases the amount of OD in tobacco seedlings are infected with PVX. Researchers said electromagnetic field growth rate and the number of spores grown in three species are affected. In another study, it was found that the impact on dry and wet mycorrhiza. The electromagnetic field decreases witches' broom disease infected lemon trees that were probably due to the decline phytoplasmas in plant tissues. Another study on the antibacterial effects of electromagnetic fields on Serratia marcescens was conducted, which resulted in the inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of salicylic acid and PAL determine the tobacco crop treatments, there are significant differences in the level of 0/05. So that treatment (7) (50 mT, 60 min) the highest salicylic acid and treatment 1 (control non-infected) showed the lowest rates. Also, reviews PAL treatment and treatment (7) most (1) (see non-polluting) had the lowest. In fact, with the arrival of the pathogen to the host salicylic acid and phenylalanine ammonia will increase. But the electromagnetic stress in some treatments of both traits, from infected plants, should take over. However, some treatments less than 11 treatments (infection control) is (but treatment Salicylic acid (4) was less than healthy plant). Interestingly, in both treatments was the highest for both traits in treatments of 7, 6 and 5, respectively. Pre-plant treatments with salicylic acid caused a significant increase in the PAL activity, which indicates the role of these enzymes in plant defense mechanism, the researchers concluded that electromagnetic frequency is very low, possibly because of the resistance of tobacco to TMV and increased Ca2+ signaling pathway involving PAL and ODC hormones in plants.
Conclusions: Comparing results of ELISA plants that had been under different electromagnetic fields the survey showed that 11 infected untreated control treatment without exposure possession was the highest infection. While treatment 8 (100 mT and 120 minutes) and 7 (50 mT for 60 minutes) showed the least amount of turbidity virus. Also in measuring hormone salicylic acid and PAL significant difference between treatments in both studies showed that treatment trait No. 7 in both traits were seen as the highest value. These results suggest a positive effect in reducing turbidity electromagnetic virus, an increase of salicylic acid and phenylalanine ammonia enzymes, hormones and enzymes that are involved in plant defense mechanisms as well.

Keywords


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