The effect of organic fertilizers on population dynamics of sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii 1871

Document Type : Research Article


1 Shahrekord University

2 Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Isfahan.


Effect of Organic Manure on Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Population Densities of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt 1871

Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN), Hederodera schachtii Schmidt. 1871, marked as one of the most damaging disease of sugar beet worldwide. It's also an important disease of sugar beet in Isfahan Province, and causing plenty of an irreversible damage. Thus, the nematode infested fields for cultivation in the province and the country is to be threatened. This nematode has a wide host range, over 218 plant species from 95 genera, belonging to 23 families, including field crops, ornamentals and weeds as hosts, which have been identified and introduced so far. The SBCN management's strategies are a long term crop rotation, use of catch crops, early planting and the use of nematicides. In general, the best method reported to control SBCN is a 3 to 7-year rotation with non-host plants. In addition, incorporation of farm manure into the soil had a positive effect in controlling potato golden cyst nematode. Testing on vermicomposting and non-organic fertilizers revealed that, free-living nematodes in the population index were highest in the vermicompost treatments than non-organic fertilizers.
Materials and methods. The initial population of SBCN in the infested soil was determined, before the treatment of the selected field. Then, 200 g. of soil were selected, out of several samples collected from every plots, which was air dried and in the file system using Fenwick, the cysts were extracted. Eggs and the second larvae in the soil and end up in a 200 g. of soil were calculated accordingly. All the organic matters, including, poultry manure at 10, 20 and 40 t/ha compost fertilizer by municipality of Isfahan wastes, vermicompost, waste cabbage leaves and farm manure (cow manure) were employed. Reproductive factors and the percent decrease and or increase in SBCN populations in each treatment were calculated relative to the initial population of the same treatment. And, comparison of means was done by Duncan tests. For the Greenhouse experiments, the same treated soils from each and every treatment in field were poured into the clay pots with a capacity of 5 kg of soil. At the time of harvest, the produced beets in each and every plot were weighted, and the beet samples for determining of sugar percentage and the important elements were sent to sugar factory for analyzes. The analysis of variance was performed, using SAS software and comparison method.
Results and ddiscussions. The initial population of SBCN was 4.85 eggs and larvae per gram of soil, before the implication of the treatments in the field. There were 92.40 and 88.44 percent reduction in SBCN final population for the poultry manure at the rate of 40 and 20 tons per hectare, with the high significant effect, in comparison to other ones respectively. Variance analysis of Reproduction factor showed that there is a significant difference between the treatments. Poultry manure 40 t/h with 0.14 eggs and larvae per gram of soil was the lowest one in reproduction factor, with a high significant effect to other treatments and control groups. Followed by poultry manure 20 t/h, compost 015, 60 ha, poultry manure 10 t/h and compost 08, 60 t/h, in the next category with a significant effect. The results on the yield, sugar content and other indices showed significant differences between the various treatments. Poultry manure 20 and 40 t/h, with the yield of 27.55 and 26.93 t/h, in a statistical group had the maximum amount of product with a very minor difference, were the most effective treatments on the assessed factors, including final population, reproduction, multiplication rat and reduction percentage in SBCN, H. schachtii compared to other treatments and the checks. In this regard, it has been shown on other nematodes that, chicken manure has reduced the population of M. incognita, Hoplolaimus columbus and Pratylenchus penetrans in brinjal. And also the use of chicken manure on control of root-knot nematodes was very effective and even caused IGR in tomato production.

1- It was found that, the use of organic matters, chicken manure, municipal compost, vermicompost; waste cabbage leaves and farm manure in different amounts control the SBCN population accordingly.
2- Therefore, it is suggested here, that chicken manure at 20t/ha, is for an optimum use and economically reasonable and significant amount for the SBCN control.
3- Also composts 015 and 08, vermicompost, farm manure and waste cabbage leaf at 40 to 60t/h, in terms of economic value appears to be applicable.
4- Always a method or a substance, in terms of its own hazards is not recommended. Therefore, any of the said material can be used in intervals for SBCN control and or in integration with other methods such as crop rotation, disease scape,


1. Abbasi PA, Al-Dahmani J, Sahin F, Hoitink HAJ. and Miller SA. 2002. Effect of compost amendments on disease severity and yield of tomato in conventional and organic production systems. Plant Dis. 86: 156-161.
2. Akhyani A, Damadzadeh M and Ahmadi AR. 1992. Evaluation of distribution and intensity of beet cyst nematode infection in sugar beet fields in Isfahan province. Abstracts, Iranian Plant Protection Congress, College of Agriculture, Karaj, page 123.
3. Barbosa P, Lima AS, Vieira P, Dias LS, Tinoco MT, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Figueiredo AC, and Mota M. 2010. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Journal of Nematology. 42:8–16.
4. Bulluck LR, Barker KR, and Ristaino JB. 2002. Influences of organic and synthetic soilfertility amendments on nematode trophic groups and community dynamics under tomatoes. Applied Soil Ecology, 21 (3): 233-250.
5. Casper W, Quist CW, Maarten Schrama M, Janjo J. de Haan JJ, Smant G, Bakker J, van der Putten WH, and Helder j. 2016. Organic farming practices result in compositional shifts in nematode communities that exceed crop-related changes. Applied Soil Ecology. 98, 254–260.
6. D′Addabbo T, Papajova I, Sasanelli N, Radicci V, Renčo M. 2011. Suppression of root-knot nematodes in potting mixes amended with different composted biowastes. Helminthologia. 48:278–287.
7. Douda O, Zouhar M, Mazakova J, Novakova E, Pavela R. 2010. Using plant essences as alternative mean for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) management. Journal of Pest Science. 83:217–221.
8. El-Zawahry A. M. 2000. Effect of organic manure on infection of faba bean by root knot nematode. Assiut J. Agri. Sci., 31 (4): 79-88.
9. Fenwick D. W. 1940. Methods for recovery and counting of H. schachtii from soil. J. Helminth. 18: 155-177.
10. Fourie H, Ahuja P, Lammers J and Daneel M. 2016. Brassicacea-based management strategies as an alternative to combat nematode pests: A synopsis Review Article. Crop Protection, 80. 21-41.
11. Fourie H, McDonald AH, De. and Waele D. 2010. Relationships between initial population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and nematode population development in terms of variable soybean resistance. Journal of Nematology. 42:55–61.
12. Gilesm J. 2004. Is organic food better for us? Nat. (Lond.). 428: 796-797.
13. Gine A, Carrasquilla M, Martinez-Alonso M, Gaju N and Sorribas FJ. 2016. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse. Front. Plant Science. 7:164
14. Hauer M, Koch HJ and Arender BM. 2015. Water use efficiency of sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.) susceptible, tolerant or resistant to Heterodera schachtii (Schmidt) in environments with contrasting infestation levels. Field Crops Research. 183, 356-364.
15. Hauer M, Koch MHJ, Krüssel S, Mittler S and Märländer B. 2016. Integrated control of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in Central Europe by trap crop cultivation, sugar beet variety choice and nematicide application. Applied Soil Ecology. 99, 62–69.
16. Heijbroek W. 1977. Partial resistance of sugar beet to beet cyst eelworm. Euphytica 26: 257-262.
17. Hu C. and Qi YC. 2010. Abundance and diversity of soil nematodes as influenced by different types of organic manure. Helminthologia. 47:58–66.
18. Hyun Gwan G, Dongro C, Hangsun K, YongHwan L and Kwangnam H. 1995. Survey on the micro-animals in crop fields organically. Crop Protection. 37:29, 371-375.
19. Jenkins WR.1964. A rapid centrifugal floatation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Dis.Rept. 48: 6999.
20. Kimpinski J, Gallant CF, Henry R, Macleod JA, Sanderson JB and Sturz AV. 2003. Effect of compost and manure soil amendments on nematodes and on yields of potato and barley: a 7- year study. J. Nematol, 35, 289-293.
21. Lazarovits G., Tenuta M and Conn KL. 2001. Organic amendments as a disease control strategy for soil borne disease of high-value agricultural crops. Australasian Plant Pathology, 30: 111.
22. Leroy BL De Sutter N., Ferris H, Moens M. and Reheul D. 2009. Short-term nematode population dynamics as influenced by the quality of exogenous organic matter. Nematology 11, 23-38.
23. Litterick AL, Harrier L, Walllace P, Watson CA and Wood M. 2004. The role of uncomposted materials, composts, manures, and compost extracts in reducing pest and disease incidence and severity in sustainable temperate agricultural and horticultural crop production a review. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 23: 453-479.
24. Mahran A, Conn KL, Tenuta M, Lazarovits G and Daayf F. 2008a. Effectiveness of liquid hog manure and acidification to kill Pratylenchus spp. in soil. Journal of Nematology. 40:266–275.
25. Nahar M.S., Grewal P.S., Miller S.A., Stinner D., Stinner B.R., Kleinhenz M.D., Wszelaki A. & Doohan D. 2006. Differential effects of raw and composted manure on nematode community and its indicative value for soil microbial, physical and chemical properties. Applied Soil Ecology. 34: 140-151.
26. Nasr Esfahani M and Ahmadi A and Karimi Pour Fard H.2009. Disinfection of contaminated sugar beet cyst nematode depot soils from sugar factory by solarization and manure sugar beet Jounal, 26 (2) 126-117.
27. Nasr Esfahani M and Ahmadi A.2004. The effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on root nematodes. Journal of Plant Pathology 41 (1) 1 - 18.
28. Orisajo SB, Afolami S0, Fademi 0. and Atungwu JJ. 2009. Effects of poultry litter and carbofuran soil amendments on Meloidogyne incognita attacks on 162 cacaos. Journal of Applied Biosciences 1: 214-22 1.
29. Oscar Grillo O, Maria Fe Andros MF, Moreno-Vezquez S. 2016. Quantitative evaluation of Heterodera avenae females in soil and root extracts by digital image analysis. Crop Protection, 81: 85-91.
30. Pakniyat M. 1999. Evaluation of sugar beet cyst nematode and its control methods in Iran. The final report of the research project. Fars Agriculture Research Center.
31. Pez-Robles JL, Olalla C, Rad C, Pez-Rojo MAD, Lpez-Prez JA, Bello A, and Rodreguez-Kabana A. 2013. The use of liquid swine manure for the control of potato cyst nematode through soil disinfestation in laboratory conditions. Crop Protection. 49: 1-7
32. Renčo M, Sasanelli N and Šalamún P. 2009. The effect of two compost soil amendments based on municipal green and penicillin production wastes, on plant parasitic nematodes. Helminthologia. 46:190–197.
33. Renčo M, Sasanelli N, D′Addabbo T, Papajova I. 2011. Soil nematode community changes associated with compost amendments. Nematology. 12: 681–692.
34. Renčo M, Sasanelli N, Kovačik P. 2010. The effect of soil compost treatments on potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida. Helminthologia. 3:184–194.
35. Renčo M, Sasanelli N, Papajova I, Maistrello L. 2012. Nematicidal effect of chestnut tannin solutions on the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.). Helminthologia. 49: 108–114.
36. Renco M., Daddabbo T., Sasanelli N. and Papajova I. 2007. The effect of five composts of different origin on the survival and reproduction of Globodera rostochiensis. Nematology 9: 537-543.
37. Riga E. 2011. The effect of Brassica green manures on plant parasitic and free living nematodes used in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides. Journal of Nematology. 43: 118–120.
38. SAS Institute. 2004. SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Version 9.1.3.Cary: SAS Institute Inc.
39. Westphal A, Kücke M, and Heuer H. 2016. Soil amendment with digestate from bio-energy fermenters for mitigating damage to Beta vulgaris subspp. by Heterodera schachtii. Applied Soil Ecology.99: 129–136.
40. Xiao H, Griffiths B, Chen X, Liu M, Jiao, Hu F. and Li H. 2010. Influence of bacterial-feeding nematodes on nitrification and the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community composition. Applied Soil Ecology 45: 131-137.
41. Yao S., Merwin IA, Abawi GS. and Thesis JE. 2006. Soil fumigation and compost amendment alter soil microbial community composition but do not improve tree growth or yield in an apple replant site. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38, 587-599.