Identification of Nematode Fauna in Vineyards of South of Western Azerbaijan and Determination of the Dominant Parasitic Species

Document Type : Research Article


1 Plant Pathology field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol

2 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol

3 Islamic Azad University of Mahabad


Introduction: Grapevine belongs to the Vitaceae family that consists of 14 genera and about 700 species. Only in the genus Vitis fruits are edible. Italy is the largest producer of grapes and Iran has the seventh position in the world from this point of view. Western Azarbaijan province comprises a high diversity of crops including wild grapes. Although, some nematodes are free living and antagonists of another soil microfauna, the other are plant parasitic agents. Most of which live in the agricultural soils where they are widely dispersed. Effectiveness of the disease management strategies are affected by the accurate identification of the plant disease causal agents and the nematodal diseases are not the exception from this rule. Therefore, for control of the diseases caused by the nematodes, it is necessary to separate the parasitic nematodes from the suspected contaminated soils and identify them. Although separation and identification of the nematodes are partly time-consuming, it is not very complicated. Some nematodes likeXiphinema, Longidorus and Ditylenchus are cosmopolitan and catastrophic nematodes in vineyards worldwide. So far no study has been performed regarding the plant parasitic nematode in vineyards of the south of Western Azerbaijan. Therefore, in this study as an introduction to the management ofthe vineyard parasitic nematodes, the dominant nematodes of the plant were identified. In the next step, investigation of nematodes bioecology, the interaction of nematodes with the other plant pathogens, their host range and their damages to the host plants would be studied.
Materials and Methods: In order to identify the fauna of plant parasitic nematodes in vineyards of the south of Western Azarbaijan, during 2013-2014, 50 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of grapevine. The sampling was carried out from the vineyards of five grapevine growing cities including Mahabad, Bookan, Sardasht, Piranshahr and Miyandoab. The samples were collected from the rhizosphere of grapevines from the depth between 10 and 80 cm from the soil surface after digging and separating the surface dry soil. About 2 kg soil from each vineyard from several places were collected and by means of a plastic bag was transferred to the laboratory where they were kept in the refrigerator at 4-degree centigrade until used. Nematodes were extracted from the soil by combined sieving and centrifugal-flotation method and processed to be transferred to glycerin. After preparing microscopic slides, the morphological and morphometrical features of the nematodes were studied using the light microscope equipped with a drawing tube. Identification of the genera and species was performed using reliable sources and valid nematode identification keys and the morphological features. The measurements of the extracted nematodes were compared with those ones given in literature and their similarities and differences with original descriptions and closest species were discussed.
Results and Discussion: As a result, 23 species belonging to 15 genera including Amplimerliniusglobigerus, Basiriatumida, Boleodorusthylactus, Discotylenchusdiscretus, Ditylenchusacutus, Ditylenchusmyceliophagus, Filenchus vulgaris, Geocenamusbrevidens, Geocenamusrugosus, Helicotylenchuspseudorobustus, Helicotylenchus vulgaris, Mesocriconemaantipolitanum, Mesocriconemaxenoplax, Paratylenchuslabiosus, Pratylenchoidesvariabilis, Pratylenchuscoffeae, Pratylenchusneglectus, Pratylenchuspenetrans, Pratylenchussefaensis, Praylenchusscribneri, Scutylenchuspaniculoides, Xiphinema index andZygotylenchusguevaraiwere identified. Five isolated species namely, Helicotylenchus vulgaris,Mesocriconemaantipolitanum, Mesocriconemaxenoplax, Helicotylenchuspseudorobustusand Pratylenchusneglectus respectively based on the frequency and distribution in the soil samples are determined as dominant parasite species. Here, the two more dominant species, Helicotylenchus vulgaris and Mesocriconemaantipolitanum are a little bit described. Helicotylenchus vulgaris, initially worldwide was reported by Yuen in 1964 and for the first time from Iran in 1995 was reported by KargarBideh, and his collaborators from Hamdan province. The species from morphological and morphometrical characteristic point of view is very close to Helicotylenchusminzi.Mesocriconemaantipolitanum firstly in 1991 was reported from Iran by Loof and Barooti from apple, wheat and lucerne roots from Karaj, potato from Lorestan, lucerne from Zanjanand apricot from Northern Azarbaijan. In the research, the species was isolated from Piranshahr, Miyandoab, Bookan and Mahabad vineyard cities of Western Azarbaijan. The species is very similar to M. surinamense.
Conclusion: Nine species including Discotylenchusdiscretus, Ditylenchusacutus, Ditylenchusacutus, Paratylenchuslabiosus, Pratylenchoidesvariabilis, Pratylenchuscoffeae, Pratylenchuspenetrans, Pratylenchusscribneri, Pratylenchussefaensisand Scutylenchuspaniculoides were recorded for the first time from the rhizosphere of grapevine from Iran. Considering thatall the nematodes are already recorded from Iran, herein only the dominant species are described.


1- Aslanpour M., Dolati Baneh H. and Mahmoodzadeh H. 2009. Identification and evaluation of wild vines of Western Azerbaijan province to utilise in grapevine breeding programs. P. 47 in National Symposium of Water Science, Soil, Plant and Agricultural Mechanisation. 2-3 March 2009. Azad University of Dezful. (in Persian with English abstract).
2- Castillo P., and Vovlas N. 2007. Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): diagnosis, biology, pathogenicity and management. Hunt, D.J. and Perry R.N. (Eds). Nematology monographs and Perspectives, volume 6. Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill Academic Publishers.
3- Creasy G.L., and Creasy L.L. 2009. Grapes, Crop Production Science in Horticulture Series.Publisher: CABI.
4- De Grisse A.T. 1969. Redescription ou modification de quelques techniques dans L’etude des nematodes phytoparasitaires Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige University of Gent, 34: 351-369.
5- Geraert E. 2010. The Criconematidae of the world, Identification of the family Criconematidae (Nematoda). Academia Press, Gent Belgie.
6- Ghaderi R., Kamali M. and Kargar Bideh A. 2012. Plant parasitic nematodes related to the horticultural and wild grapevines of Kordestan. Proceedings of 20th International Plant Protection Congress. Shiraz. 2:737 (in Persian with English abstract).
7- Karegar A., Geraert E. and Kheiri A. 1995. Tylenchs associated with grapevine in the province of Hamadan, Iran. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige University Gent, 60(3): 1063-1086.
8- Kheiri A. 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaurboek Dodonaea, 40: 224-239.
9- Kumari S., and Decraemer W. 2007. The genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Bohemia and South Moravia in the rhizosphere of fruit orchards and vineyards. Helminthologia, 44(4): 193-203.
10- Loof P.A.A. 1991. The family Pratylenchidae Thorne, 1949. In: Nickle, W.R. (Ed.). Manual of agricultural nematology. New York, NY, USA, Marcel Dekker, pp. 363-421.
11- Loof P.A.A., and Barooti, S. 1991. New records of species of Criconematidae from Iran with describtion of Criconemoides desipiens sp. N. (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Nematologia Mediterranea, 19: 83-95.
12- Mohammad Deimi A. and Mitkowski N. 2010. Nematodes associated with vineyards throughout Markazi province (Arak), Iran. Australasian Plant Pathology, 39: 571–577.
13- Mojtahedi H., Sturhan D., Akhiani A., and Barooti Sh. 1980. Xiphinema species in Iranian vineyards. Nematology, 8: 165-170.
14- Peighambardoost H. and Aghamirzaee M. 2011. Investigation of physical characteristics and engineering of grapevine seed of black cultivar from Sardasht (the dominant cultivar in northern west of Iran. Proceedings of 20th National Congress on Food Technology. Tehran. (in Persian with English abstract).
15- Raski D.J. 1952. On the morphology of Criconemoides Taylor, 1936, with descriptions of six new species (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 19: 85-99.
16- Rensch B. 1924. Aphelenchus neglectussp.n., eine neue parasitare Nematodenart. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 59: 277-280.
17- Rossetto M., Jackes B.R., Scott K.D. and Henry R.J. 2002. Intergeneric relationship in the Australian Vitaceae: new evidence from cpDNA analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 48: 307-314.
18- Siddiqi M.R. 1972. On the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Tylenchida), with descriptions of nine new species. Nematologica, 18: 74-91.
19- Steiner G. 1914. Freile bende nematoden aus der schweiz.2. Tail einer Vor laufigen Vor laufigen Mittilung. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie und Planktonkunde, 9: 420-438.