Investigating the Effect of Ultrasonic Waves and Seed Priming on Emergence and Growth of Cowpea under Soil-Applied Trifluralin

Document Type : Research Article


1 University of Zabol

2 Shahrood University


Introduction: Improving the rate of germination and crop growth at the early growing stagescan reduce weed damage via increasing crop competitiveness. Trifluralin is a pre emergence herbicide that is incorporated with soil to prevent weed emergence and seedling growth. It inhibit microtubule assembly in cells . Seed priming cause to initiate the repairing system for membrane and the metabolic preparation for germination through controlling water absorption rate of seed. As a result, the germination capability and resistance to unfavorable conditions of seed can be promoted obviously using seed priming. Ultrasound is defined as acoustic waves at frequencies greater than 20 kHz that can be an effective method to improve germination and growth characteristics of plants . There is no knowledge about the effect of ultrasonic waves and seed priming on the emergence and growth of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) under soil application of trifluralin. So the objective of this research was to study the effect of ultrasonic waves and seed priming on the emergence and growth of cowpea under soil application of trifluralin.
Materials and methods: Field experiment was conducted at the research field of Shahrood University (latitude of 36° 25 'N and longitude of 54° 57' E with an elevation of 1345 m) as randomized complete block design with four replications in during the growing season of 2014-2015. The field soil was silty clay loam in texture, having pH 7.8, EC 3.9 ds m-1, 0.75% of organic carbon, 0.04% N 6.4 and 320 ppm of available P and K. Nine treatments were 1- control, 2- recommended herbicide dose (trifluralin 2 L ha-1), 3- reduced herbicide dose (trifluralin 1 L ha-1), 4- ultrasonic waves (ultrasound), 5- ultrasonic waves + reduced herbicide dose, 6- ultrasonic waves + recommended herbicide dose, 7- hydro-priming, 8- hydro-priming + reduced herbicide dose and 9- hydro-priming + recommended herbicide dose. For hydro-priming treatment, the seeds were treated with water before sowing for 7 h. About ultrasonic treatment, the seeds before sonication (for 6 minutes) treated with water for 7 h. Trifluralin (Treflan, EC48%) applied in recommended dose (2 L ha-1) and reduced herbicide dose (1 L ha-1) as immediate mixed with soil before planting. The plots were 24 m2 with 4 sowing rows and 6 m long. Seeds were placed at 3 to 5 cm depth in each row at during the second week of June in 2014. Number of emerged seedlings in two middle rows of were daily counted until seedling establishment became stable. Emergence percentage and rate of cowpea were calculated. Sampling was done at 55 days after planting. All samples were transferred to the laboratory, leaves and stem were separated,dried into oven at 70 ºC for 72 h and weighted. Chlorophyll content, relative water content, leaf and shoot dry weight and plant height of cowpea were measured for all treatment
The second experiment was conducted at the greenhouse as randomized complete block design with four replications in 2014. The treatments were exactly similar to the field experiment. Germinated seeds were recorded every 24 h for 16 days. Then, the plants were removed from each pot and transferred to the laboratory. Root, leaves and stem were separated and afterwards all samples were dried into oven at 70 ºC for 48 h and weighted. Seedling vigor index, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length, weight of root, leaf and shoot, number of leaf and leaf area index were measured for all treatment. Chlorophyll content was estimated using chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502, Konika-Minolta Co). Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test.
Results and discussion: The results showed that the ultrasonic treatment increased the dry weight of stem and leaves by 25.27 and 29.58 % as compared with the control treatment respectively. Mirshekari et al. (34) reported that when seeds were primed with ultrasonic irradiation for 5 min, seedling dry weight and leaf chlorophyll content of yarrow increased by 70% and 33.6% than control respectively. Marghaeizadeh et al. (33) reported that application ultrasonic waves increased the chlorophyll content of Carum copticum (L.) C. B. Clarke in comparison to control. Our results suggested that at both experiments the combined use of ultrasonic waves + reduced herbicide dose decreased the percentage and rate of emergence significantly in comparison to herbicide application alone. The application of ultrasonic waves + reduced herbicide dose led to a reduction in the percentage and rate of emergence by 64.83 and 68.13% in comparison to reduced herbicide application alone, respectively. Also the combined use of priming + reduced herbicide dose decreased the percentage and rate of emergence by 50.4 and 53.8 % in comparison to reduced herbicide application alone respectively. The major effects of dinitroanaline herbicides are on plant root growth, which they stop by interfering with mitosis and preventing normal cell division and cell wall formation (38, 35). It seems that hydro priming technique and ultrasonic irradiation with improving seed germination and seedling early growth under soil-incorporated trifluralin herbicide can led to more and faster absorption of herbicide by seedling and more damage to them than control.
Conclusion: Our results showed the ultrasonic waves and priming accelerates the seed germination and root length and ultimately resulted in improving biomass and growth of cowpea seedling. Also data presented in this research suggested that pre-treated of cowpea seeds with ultrasonic waves and hydro priming can reduce some plant parameters like percentage and emergence rate of seeds, shoots dry weight, leaf area index and etc. in soil treated with trifluralin herbicide.


Abbasdokht H., and Edalatpisheh M.R. 2012. Effect of seed priming and different levels of urea on yield and yield component of two corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 3: 381-389. (In Persian).
2- Abbasdokht H. Makarian H., Ahmadi Sharaf H., Gholami A., and Rahimi M. 2012. The study of integrated weed management (IWM), emphasizing the effect of seed priming on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mayz L.). Journal Weed Research, 4: 63-76. (In Persian).
3- Abbaszadeh F., Khakestari D., and Naker F. 2011. The Effect of magnetic field on seed germination in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum L.). Paper Abstracts of the 2nd Conference on Seeds. Mashhad: Ferdowsi University, pp. 768-775.
4- Abdul-baki A. A., and Anderson J. D. 1970. Viability and leaching of sugars from germinating barely. Crop Science, 10: 31-34.
5- Afzal I., Basra S.A.M., Hamid A., and Farooq M. 2006. Phisiological enhancements for alleviation of salt stress in wheat. Pakistan Journal, 38: 1649-1659.
6- Amini R., and Fateh E. 2011. Effect of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) on growth indices and yield of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture And Production Science, 2:113-129. (in Persian).
7- Ansari O. and Sharif-Zadeh F. 2012. Osmo and hydro priming improvement germination characteristics and enzyme activity of Mountain Rye (Secale montanum) seeds under drought stress. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 8(4):253-261.
8- Bagheri A., Zand A., and Parsa M. 1998. Beans, the bottlenecks and strategies of jihad Mashhad University Press. (in Persian).
9- Belcher E. W., and Miller L. 1974. Influence of substrate moisture level on the germination of sweetgun and pine seed. Proceeding of the Association of Official Seed Analysis, 65:88-89.
10- Caseiro R., Bennett M.A., and Marcos-Filho J. 2004. Comparison of three priming techniques for onion seed lots differing in initial seed quality. Seed Science Technology, 32:365-375.
11- Duke S.O. 1990. Overview of herbicide. Mechanisms of Action. Environ. Health Perspect, 87:263-271.
12- Duman I. 2006. Effect of seed priming with PE Gand K3PO4 on germination and seedling growth in Lettuce. Pakistan Journal of Biology Science, 9(5): 923-928.
13- Ebadi Sh., Gholipoor M., and Gholami A. 2013. The effect of ultrasonic waves and nitroxin biological fertilizer on growth, yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna sinensis). Second National Conference on Sustainable Agricultural Development and Healthy Environmen, (in Persian).
14- Farooq M., Basra S.M.A., Warraich E.A., and Khaliq A. 2006. Optimization of hydropriming techniques for rice seed invigoration. Seed Science Technology, 34:529-534.
15- Faryabi A., Zaremansh H., Keshvarii M., and Abdali N. 2008. The effect of ultrasonic waves on physiologic and morphologic processes of seed germination in capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum) and radish (Rhaphanus sativus). The 1st National Conference on Iranian Seed Science and Technology, Gorgan.
16- Gavrilo L.R., Tsirulnikov E.M., and Davies H. 1996. Application of focused for the stimulation of neural structures Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 22(2):179-192.
17- Ghasemi-Rad P., Mehrafarin A., Hosseini M., Mansouri M., and Bygry M. 2011. The effect of magnetic attraction and ultrasonic waves on seed germination in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). The 2nd National Conference on Iranian Seed Science and Technology. Mashhad: Islamic Azad University, pp. 79-83.
18- Gholipour M. and Mohammadi Y. 2008. Evaluating the effect of wheat germination on magnetic field. Paper Abstracts of the 1st National Conference on Iranian Seed Science and Technology, Gorgan.
19- Hess D. and Bayer D. 1974. The effect of trifluralin on the ultrastructure of dividing cells of the root meristems of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (Acala 4-42). Journal Cell Science, 15:429-441.
20- Hassanien R. H. E., HOU T. Z., LI Y. F. and LI B. M. 2014. Advances in effects of sound waves on plants. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13(2):335-348.
21- Jalilian A., Ghobadi R., and Farnia, A. 2011. Response of some photosynthesis system traits and leaf relative water content of corn [SC704] on different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer in different irrigation regims. 5th National Conference on New Ideas in Agriculture. 16 and 17 February, Isfahan. (in Persian).
22- K.poshtmasari H., Pirdashti H., and Bahmanyar M.A. 2007. Comparison of mineral and biophosphate fertilizer effects on agronomical characteristics in two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 4: 1-9.
23- Kant S., Pahuja S.S., and Pannu R.K. 2006. Effect of seed priming on growth and phenology of wheat under late-sown conditions. Tropical Science, 44: 9-15.
24- Kaur S., Gupta A.K., and Kaur N. 2005. Seed priming increase crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 191: 81-87.
25- Kust CA. and Struckmeyer BE. 1971. Effects of trifluralin on growth, nodulation, and anatomy of soybeans . Weed Science, 19:147-152.
26- Lignowski EM., and Scott EG. 1971. Trifluralin and root growth. Plant and Cell Physiology, 12 (5): 701-708.
27- Lipiec J., Janas P., and Barabasz W. 2004. Effect of oscillating magnetic field pulses on the survival of selected microorganisms. International Agrophysics, 18(4): 325-328.
28- Liu J., Liu G. S., Qi D. M., Li F. F., Wang E. H. 2002. Effect of PEG on germination and active oxygen metabolism in wild rye (Leymus chinensis) seeds. Acta Pratacult Sin, 11(1): 59-64.
29- Maguire J.D. 1962. Speed of germination in selection and evolution for seeding vigor. Crop Science, 2: 176-177.
30- Mahdavi B., Modares-Sanavi A.M., and Balochi H.R., 2008. The effect of electromagnetic fields on germination and primary growth in the seeds of annual alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), dodder (Cuscuta sp.), and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.). Iranian Journal Biology, 21(3): 433-442.
31- Maleki-Farahani S. and Fahiminejad H. 2011. The effect of seed germination in common caraway (Carum carvi L.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) before treatment with ultrasonic sources. Paper Abstracts of the 2nd Conference on Seeds. Pp: 258-261.
32- Marenco RA., and Lopes NF. 1994. Leaf chlorophyll concentration and nitrogen content in soybean plants treated with herbicide, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 6(1):7-13.
33- Marghaeizadeh Gh., Gharineh M.H., Fathi Gh. Abdali A.R. and Farbod M. 2012. Effect of ultrasound waves and magnetic field on germination, growth and yield of Carum copticum (L.) C. B. Clarke) in lab and field conditions. 12 th Iranian Crop Sciences Congress. 1-4. (in Persian).
34- Mirshekari, B., Farahvash, F., Siyami, R., Hosseinzadeh Moghbeli, A., Sotudeh Khiabani, A., 2013. Ultrasonic irradiation could increase germination and seedling vigor of common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), as a medicinal plant. Life Science Journal, 10(5s): 302-305.
35- Morejohn L. C., Bureau T. E., Mole- Bajer J., Bajer A. S., and Fosker D. E. 1987. Oryzalin, a dinitroanaline herbicides bins to plant tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro. Planta, 172: 252-264.
36- Nooden L.D. and Thimann K.V. 1963. Evidence for a requirement for protein synthesis for auxin-induced cell enlargement. Botany Science, 50: 194-200.
37- Ritchie S. W. and Nguyen H. T. 1990. Leaf water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science, 30: 105-111.
38- Ross, M. A., Lembi, C. A., 1999. Applied Weed Science, 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey. 452 pp.
39- Rouhi H.R., Aboutalebian M.A., Moosavi S.A., Karimi F.A., Karimi F., Saman M. and Samadi M. 2012. Change in several antioxidant enzymes activity of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) by priming. International Journal of Agriculture Science, 2 (3): 237-243.
40- Saki T., Nasiri M., Abdali N., and Alinia-Fard S. 2009. The Effect of ultrasonic waves on germination percentage and rate in lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) medicinal plant. Tehran: The Scientific Conference on Industrial Development of Medicinal Plants in Iran.
41- Shimomura S. 1990. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on sprouting radish seed. Ultrasonic Symposium Proceedings, 3:1665-1667.
42- Sorkhy lalelo F. 2009. Evaluate the effect of ultrasound waves and magnetic field on seeds germination in Marygold (Calendula officinalis). 6th Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 1161-1165. (in Persian).
43- Talbert R. E. 1965. Effects of trifluralin on soybean root development. Proc. 18th Southern Weed Control Conference. p. 652.
44- Wang, A., Kopachik, W., 1995. Effects of trifluralin on growth and differentiation of the amoebo-flagellate Naegleria. FEMS Microbiology, 127:99-103.
45- Yaldagard M., Mortazavi S.A., and Tabatabaie T. 2008. Application of ultrasonic waves as a priming technique for accelerating and enhancing the germination of barely seed: optimization of method by the Taguchi approach,The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.
46- Zand E., Baghestani M. A., Bitarafan M., and Shimi P. 2007. Guide of Herbicides In Iran & Management of Weed Resistance to Heabicides. (pp 66). Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashhad pub. Mashhad. (in Persian).