ارزیابی تأثیر مقدار ماده آلی خاک بر عمق آبشویی ایمازتاپیر

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

2 استادیارگروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم علف‏های هرز، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

چکیده

آزمایشی گلدانی جهت بررسی تأثیر ماده آلی خاک بر عمق آبشویی ایمازتاپیر به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی در گلخانه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس در سال 1396 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول نوع خاک (شامل 1- بدون افزودن ماده آلی + بدون اعمال علف‌کش (S1)، 2- بدون افزودن ماده آلی+ علف‎کش (S2)، 3- 10 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‏کش (S3)، 4- 25 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‎کش (S4) و 5- 50 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‎کش (S5)) و فاکتور دوم شامل عمق آبشویی به اندازه‏های 2، 4، 6، 8، 10، 12 و 14 سانتی‏متر بودند. علف‏کش ایمازتاپیر بر اساس دز توصیه شده آن (یک لیتر در هکتار) استفاده شد. درصد سبز شدن بذر پنبه در تمام تیمارهای خاک با افزایش عمق آبشویی، افزایش معنی‏داری یافت به‎طوری که بیشترین درصد سبز شدن از تیمار بدون افزودن ماده آلی + بدون اعمال علف‌کش با مقدار 86/62 و کمترین از تیمار خاک حاوی 50 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‎کشبا مقدار 14/56 بدست آمد. کمترین طول ساقه از عمق‏های 2 و 4 سانتی‏متر بدست آمد. در عمق‏های 6، 8 ،10، 12 و 14 سانتی‏متر با افزایش عمق آبشویی و کاهش غلظت علف‏کش ایمازتاپیر، طول ساقه افزایش یافت. در تیمارهای واجد علف‏کش با افزایش عمق آبشویی، طول ریشه پنبه افزایش یافت و بیشترین میانگین طول ریشه در هر نوع خاک، از تیمار بدون افزودن ماده آلی + بدون اعمال علف‌کش  با مقدار 6/7  بدست آمد و کمترین از تیمار خاک حاوی 25 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‎کش با مقدار 9/3 حاصل شد. وزن خشک ساقه و ریشه پنبه نیز در تیمارهای بدون افزودن ماده آلی+ علف‎کش،خاک حاوی 10 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‏کش،خاک حاوی 25 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‎کشو خاک حاوی 50 درصد ماده آلی+ علف‎کش با افزایش عمق آبشویی به طور معنی‏داری افزایش یافت. می‏توان نتیجه‏گیری کرد که درصد ماده آلی بر عمق نفوذ ایمازتاپیر مؤثر بود و از آنجایی که در حال حاضر جایگزین قابل رقابتی برای علف‏کش‏ها وجود ندارد شاید بتوان با افزایش مصرف کود دامی  از اثرات مخرب آنها کاست که علاوه بر بهبود ساختار خاک و افزایش میزان ماده آلی سبب پالایش خاک نیز می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effect of Soil Organic Matter on Leaching Depth of Imazethapyr

نویسندگان [English]

  • zeinab Avarseji 1
  • Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari 2
  • Taher Ajami 3
1 Assistant Professor , Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University
2 Assistant Professor Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University
3 M.Sc. Graduated Student of Weed Science Plant Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Application of herbicides in modern intensive agriculture to control weeds has increased dramatically, which leads to the serious environmental problems due to transferring and leaching of herbicides to non-target locations; and their negative effects on non-target organisms need to be reduced. In other words, leaching and transferring of herbicides not only reduce its efficiency but also leads to groundwater pollution. Among the herbicide transfer processes in the soil, leaching is the most important processes because of its potential to contaminate groundwater. Imazethapyr is extensively used in the country's arable lands, and the present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil organic matter on the leaching depth of this herbicide.
Materials and Methods: A factorial pot experiment was conducted in 2017 based on a completely randomized design. The first factor was soil type (including 1- without adding organic matter and without herbicide application (S1), 2- without adding organic matter + herbicide (S2), 3- 10% organic matter + herbicide (S3), 4 - 25% organic matter + herbicide (S4) and 5-50% organic matter + herbicide (S5)), and leaching depths of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 centimeters was considered as the second factor. Imazethapyr herbicide was applied based on its recommended dose. After applying the herbicide in the soil columns, no cultivation operation was carried out for 48 hours so the herbicide had enough time to transfer to different depths of the soil. It was closed under each pot with a flat plate and then five cotton seeds were planted in each pot. After planting, the pots were not irrigated for 48 hours to absorb the herbicide by seeds and then irrigation was done according to the needs of the plant with a suitable sprinkler. All pots were cared for in the greenhouse for 30 days and then emergence percentage, stem height, root length, stem dry weight and root dry weight were measured and recorded. To measure the dry weight, a digital scale with an accuracy of one hundredth was used and to dry the plant components, all samples were placed in an oven at 75 ° C for 24 hours.
Results: The results of analysis of variance related to the measured traits of cotton crop indicated that the simple and interaction effects of soil type treatments and leaching depth had a significant effect (p-value < 0.01) on stem length, root length, stem dry weight and weight dried cotton roots. Due to the significant interaction between soil type and leaching depth, physical cutting was performed based on the soil type. Emergence percentage trait was not affected by soil type but leaching depth treatments and the interaction of soil type leaching depth showed a significant effect on this trait (p-value < 0.05 and p-value < 0.01, respectively). Mean comparisons related to the emergence percentage of cotton seeds showed that in almost all soil treatments with increasing the leaching depth, the emergence percentage of cotton increased significantly, which indicates a decrease in the amount of imazethapyr herbicide leaching in more soil depths. In other words, with increasing soil depth, the amount of leached herbicide was also reduced. The average emergence percentage in each soil depth shows that the highest emergence percentage was obtained from a depth of 14 cm at 78.85 and the lowest was obtained from a depth of two centimeters at 42.66. The minimum stem length was obtained from depths of 2 and 4 cm. At depths of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 cm, stem length increased with increasing leaching depth and decreasing the concentration of imazethapyr herbicide. This could be due to the accumulation of washed herbicides at the bottom of the column, because after applying the herbicide, the soil columns were left standing for 48 hours to allow the herbicide to be transported deeper, and possibly after the herbicide reaches the end of the column and the drainage rate is low in this area, the accumulation of imazethapyr at low depths, especially at a depth of 14 cm, has reduced the stem length at this depth. In addition to the possibility of herbicide uptake by soil organic matter, plant growth may also be affected by more soil organic matter and be effective in compensating for the negative effect of herbicides. In herbicide treatments, the root length of cotton increased with increasing the leaching depth. Stem and root dry weight also increased significantly in S2, S3, S4, and S5 treatments with increasing the leaching depth. It seems that after absorption by cotton seedlings, imazethapyr stops the production of amino acids and reduces their levels such as valine, lysine and isoleucine, causing cell death and ultimately reducing the growth of cotton.
Conclusion: The percentage of organic matter was effective on the penetration depth of the herbicide. In treatments with higher percentages of organic matter at depths greater than 4 cm, cotton traits were not zero and the presence of higher organic matter, in addition to helping plant growth, by absorbing more herbicides, caused its leaching damage. It is possible to consider a significant increase in the parameters studied in cotton crop by increasing the amount of organic matter at different depths of the leaching of imazethapyr herbicide from two aspects. First, an increase in organic matter is likely to increase the degradation of the imazethapyr herbicide. Second, the increase in organic matter has improved the metabolic reactions in the plant and therefore the increase in organic matter has been associated with the improvement of cotton growth indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • environmental contamination
  • herbicide leaching behavior
  • Herbicide penetration
  • soil organic matter content
  1. Ahmad R., and Rahman A. 2009. Sorption characteristics of atrazine and imazethapyr in soils of New Zealand: importance of independently determined sorption data. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 57: 10866–10875.
  2. Ahmad R., Kookana R.S., and Alston A.M. 2001. Sorption of ametryn and imazethapyr in twenty-five soils from Pakistan and Australia. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B 36: 143–160.
  3. Ahrens W.H. 1986.Herbicide leaching column for a weed science teaching laboratory. Journal of Agronomic Education 15(1): 17-20.
  4. Albarrán A., Celis R., Hermosín M.C., Lopez-Pineiro A., Ortega-Calvo J.J., and Cornejo J. 2003. Effects of solid olive-mill waste addition to soil on sorption, degradation and leaching of the herbicide simazine. Soil Use Management 19:150-156.
  5. Barzoei M., Izadi-Darbandi E., Rashed Mohassel M., Rastgoo M., and Hassanzadeh M. 2016. Estimate of trifluralin half-life in soil by bioassay experiment. Journal of Plant Protection 30(2): 177-178. (In Persian)
  6. Basham G., Lavy T.L., Oliver L.R., and Scott H.D. 1987. Imazaquin persistence and mobility in three Arkansas soils. Weed Science 35: 576-582.
  7. Battaglin W.A., Furlong E.T., Burkhardt M.R., and Peter C.J. 2000. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States. Science of Total Environment 248: 123-133.
  8. Bresnahan G.A., Dexter A.G., Koskinen D., and Lueschen W.F. 2002. Influence of soil pH-sorption interactions on the carry-over of fresh and aged soil residues of imazamox. Weed Research 23: 42–45
  9. Bresnahan G.A., Koskinen W.C., Dexter A.G., and Lueschen W.F. 2000 Influence of soil pH-sorption interactions on imazethapyr carry-over. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 48: 1929-1934.
  10. Briceño G., Palma G., and Durán N. 2007. Influence of organic amendment on the biodegradation and movement of pesticides. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 37(3): 233-271.
  11. Elazzouzi M., Mekkaoui M., Zaza S., El Madani M., Zrineh A., and Chovelon J.M. 2002. Abiotic degradation of imazethapyr in aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B 37: 445-451.
  12. El-Madani M., Elazzouzi M., Zrineh A., Martens D. and Kettrup A. 2003. PH effect and kinetic studies of the binding behavior of imazethapyr herbicide on some Moroccan soils. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 12(9): 1114–1119
  13. Fenoll J., Vela N., Navarro G., Pérez-Lucas G., and Navarro S. 2014a. Assessment of agro-industrial and composted organic wastes for reducing the potential leaching of triazine herbicide residues through the soil. Science of the Total Environment 493: 124-132.
  14. Johnson D.H., Shaner D.L., Deane J., Mackersie L.A., and Tuxhorn G. 2000. Time-dependent adsorption of imazethapyr to soil. Weed Science 48: 769–775.
  15. Johnson D.H., Jordon D.L., Johnson W.G., Talbert R.E., and Frans R.E. 1993. Nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, imazethapyr and DPX-PE350 injury to succeeding crops. Weed Technology 7: 641–644
  16. Mansoori H., Zand E., Baghestani M., and Tavakoli M. 2008. Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on yield and components of yield of canola (Brassica napus L.) in rotation with wheat. Iranian Journal of Weed Science 4(1): 75-83. (In Persian)
  17. Mehdizadeh M., Izadi-Darbandi E., Naseri-Pour Yazdi M., Rastgoo M., Malaekeh-Nikouei B., and Nasirli H. 2015. Evaluation of metribuzin degradation and its half-life in soil affected by different organic fertilizers under field conditions. Applied Field Crops Research 28(3): 120-126. (In Persian)
  18. Mendes K.F., Hall K.E., Takeshita V., Rossi M.L., and Tornisielo V.L. 2018a. Animal Bonechar increases sorption and decreases leaching potential of aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione in a tropical soil. Geoderma 316: 11-18.
  19. Mendes K.F., Reis M.R., Passos A.B.R.J., Inoue M.H., Silva A.A., and Silva D.V. 2016. Determination of oxadiazon residues in the field treated soil with and without organic matter incorporated. Environment and Earth Science 75: 1-8.
  20. Mofidi S., Ramezani M., and Diyanat M. 2016. Persistence of metribuzin in soils with different characteristics and utilization history and their effects on cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.). Semi Annual Journal of Weed Ecology 4(1): 19-26. (In Persian)
  21. Negre M., Schulten H.R., Gennari M., and Vindrola D. 2001. Interactions of imidazolinone herbicides with soil humic acid. Experimental results and molecular modelling. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 2: 107–125.
  22. Oliveira J.R.S., Koskinen W.C., and Ferreira F.A. 2001. Sorption and leaching potential of herbicides on Brazilian soils. Weed Research 41(2): 97–110.
  23. Parham J.A., Deng S.P., Da H.N., Sun H.Y., and Raun W.R. 2003. Long-term cattle manure application in soil. Effect on soil microbial populations and community structure. Journal of Biology and Fertility of Soils 38: 209-215.
  24. Poorazar R., and Zand E. 2011. Final report of the plan of the effect of herbicide residues in corn on wheat crop. Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. 35 pages. (In Persian)
  25. Prata F., Cardinali V.C.B., Lavorenti A., Tornisielo V.L., and Regitano J.B. 2003. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with different phosphorous levels. Scientia Agricola 60: 175-80.
  26. Qassam A. 2008. Investigation of the effect of herbicide residues used in corn using watercress. 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj. Page 66. (In Persian)
  27. Rojas R., Morillo J., Usero J., Delgado-Moreno L., and Gan J. 2013. Enhancing soil sorption capacity of an agricultural soil by addition of three different organic wastes. Science of the Total Environment 458: 614-623.
  28. Sanchez-Camazano M. 2006. Comparison of pesticide sorption by physico-chemically modified soils with natural soils as a function of soil properties and pesticide hydroph city. Journal of Soil and Sediment Contamination 15: 401-415.
  29. Shahraeeni A. 2014. The effect of herbicide residues on morphological characteristics of corn and sorghum roots. Master Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar Branch. (In Persian)
  30. Sondhia S. 2008a. Leaching behavior of metsulfuron-methyl in two texturally different soils. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 154(1): 111-115.
  31. Sondhia S. 2008b. Terminal residues of imazethapyr in soybean grains, straw and soil. Pesticide Research Journal 20(1): 128-129.
  32. Tejada M., and Benítez C. 2017. Flazasulfuron behavior in a soil amended with different organic wastes. Applied Soil Ecology 117: 81-87.
  33. Valiollahpour R., Rashed Mohassel M., Baghestani M.A., Lakzian A., and Hasanzade Khayat M. 2009. Effect of herbicides residue used in rice fields on growth characteristics of second crop in rotation in Mazandaran province. Journal of Plant Protection 22(2): 61-70. (In Persian)