کاهش اثر منفی حامل آب‏ سخت بر کارایی توفوردی+ ام سی پی آ‏ به وسیله سولفات آمونیوم

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد

3 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تأثیر کاربرد ماده افزودنی به‏منظور مدیریت اثر حامل آب سخت بر علف‏کش توفوردی+ ام سی پی آ در بهار و تابستان 1392 در یک زمین چمن مخلوط 10 ساله اقلیم سرد آلوده به شبدر سفید (Trifolium repens L.) در مشهد در یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار بررسی شد. فاکتور اول شامل سختی‏های صفر (آب نرم)، 45، 90 و 180 ppm (Ca 2+ +Mg2+ ) و فاکتور دوم مقادیر صفر، دو، سه، و چهار درصد سولفات آمونیوم در آب حامل علف‏کش بود. تراکم و وزن خشک شبدر و چمن اندازه‏گیری شد. تمام سطوح سختی آب سبب کاهش کارایی علف‏کش روی شبدر شد. سولفات آمونیوم به تنهایی تأثیری بر سمیت آن نداشت بلکه در مواجهه با سختی نقش ضد آنتاگونیستی خود را ایفا نمود و اثر آنتاگونیستی کاتیون‏ها را خنثی کرد. در سختی 45 ppm افزایش میزان سولفات آمونیوم در آب حامل علف‏کش تا چهار درصد به بازیابی سمیت علف‏کش کمک کرد ولی در سختی‏های 90 و 180 ppm افزایش بیش از دو درصد سولفات آمونیوم به آب حامل علف‏کش سودی در پی نداشت. علف‏کش روی چمن گیاه‌سوزی ایجاد نکرد بلکه با افزایش سولفات آمونیوم در آب نرم، چمن از آن به عنوان یک منبع غذایی بهره برد و وزن خشک آن افزایش یافت. افزایش میزان سختی تأثیری بر وزن خشک چمن نداشت و برتری عملکرد تیمار آب نرم ناشی از کنترل بهتر شبدر و تأثیر غیر مستقیم روی چمن بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reducing the 2, 4 D+MCPA Antagonism from Hard Spray Waters by Ammonium Sulfate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hossein Torabi 1
  • Mohammad Bazoobandi 1
  • Ahmad Radjabi 2
  • Mohammad Hassan Hadizadeh 1
  • Ehssan Torabi 3
1 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorassan Razavi
3 Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Water is the main carrier of herbicides (HC) that its quality plays an important role in herbicide performance hard water has a high concentration of Ca++ and Mg++ and reviews have shown that calcium, manganese and zinc are the main factors reducing the effectiveness of weak acid herbicides. Weak acid herbicides such as glyphosate, paraquat, clethodim and 2, 4 D are compounds that release the H+ ions once dissolved in water, but just slightly. Therefore, herbicides that are weak acids partially dissociate. Herbicides not dissociated (the compound remains whole) are more readily absorbed by plant foliage than those that dissociate. Dissociated herbicide molecules have a negative charge. After being dissociated, herbicides might remain as negatively charged molecules, or they might bind with other positively charged cations. Binding to some cations improves herbicide uptake and absorption, binding to others such as Ca++ and Mg++ antagonizes herbicide activity by decreasing absorption or activity in the cell. To correct such carriers, the use of adjuvants, such as ammonium sulphate (AMS), is recommended, which can reduce the use of herbicides and cause economic savings. The aim of this study was to investigate the simple effects and interactions between different amounts of AMS and carrier hardness (CH) levels on 2, 4 D + MCPA herbicide efficacy in controlling white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in turf grass.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with three replications for each treatment during spring-summer 2013 in 10 years old mixed cold season turf grass (Festuca rubra + Poa pratensis + Poa pratensis) dominated by white clover in Mashhad (Iran). The treatments were the factorial combination of four carrier hardness (CH) rates (Deionized, 45, 90 and 180 ppm of Ca++ +Mg++) and three Ammonium Sulfate (AMS) rates (0, 2, 3 and 4 Kg per100 L of carrier water) were studied. The turf was sprayed with 2, 4 D + MCPA (67.5% SL) at 1.5 L-ha applied once on July. The density and dry matter of clover and turf were recorded.
Results and Discussion: Full performance of 2, 4 D + MCPA herbicide to control clover, regardless of the amount of ammonium sulfate used, was obtained in soft water. Adding just 4%, AMS to Carrier water with a hardness of 45 ppm could recover effectiveness of herbicide up to DI water, whereas in 90 ppm of hardness adding only 2 percent ammonium sulfate was enough to increase herbicide efficacy to twice as no ammonium sulfate treatment. The most significant antagonism effect was obtained in 180 ppm hardness level without AMS reducing 84% of 2, 4 D + MCPA performance compared to soft water. The highest antagonism effect of the herbicide carrier went to 180 ppm, 90 ppm and 45 ppm of hardness respectively. Overall, the study revealed that only in 45 ppm of CH the addition of 4% of AMS will help to restore the toxicity of 2, 4 D + MCPA while in 90 ppm and 180 ppm of CH add more than 2% of AMS to 2, 4 D + MCPA carrier water will not benefit the herbicide toxicity. Most reports have considered sufficient two percent of AMS to neutralize the inhibitory effect of CH on the weak acid herbicides. Three weeks after spraying, no phytotoxicity was found in the grass. At the same time interaction between CH and AMS on the lawn dry weight was significant (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adjuvant
  • Herbicide
  • Turf
  • White clover
1- Abtali Y., Abtali M., Payrovi R., and Ramazani H. 2006. Investigation reduced rate of post emergence herbicides and oil adjuvant for increased efficacy in Rape seed and wheat in Mazandaran. p 65. In N. Nezamabadi (ed.) Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Vol 3. 2-5 Sep. 2006. University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. (in Percian with English abstract)
2- Aladesanwa R.D., and Oladimeji M.O. 2005. Optimizing herbicidal efficacy of glyphosate isopropylamine salt through ammonium sulphate as surfactant in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in a rainforest area of Nigeria. Crop Protection, 24:1068-1073.
3- Altland J. No date. Water Quality Affects Herbicide Eefficacy. Available at http://oregonstate.edu/dept/nursery-weeds/feature_articles/spray_tank/spray_tank.htm. (Visited 29 Nov 2012).
4- Amini F., Hassan Alizadeh M., and Bagherani N. 2004. A study on possibility of reducing Bentazon herbicide dose by adding adjuants for broad-leaved weeds control in soya beans fields of Mazandaran province. p. 614. In Proceedings of the 3rd National Conference on the Development in the Application of Biological Products &Optimum Utilization of Chemival Fertilizera & Pesticides in Agriculture. 21-23 Feb. 2004. Karaj-Iran. (in Persian)
5- Bruin J. 2006. SAS Library (Slicing Interactions in SAS). In: Newtest; Command to Compute New Test. UCLA: Statistical Consulting Group [Online]. Available at http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/library/SASSlice_os.htm. (Visited 04 June 2014).
6- Chahal G., Roskamp J., Legleiter T., and Johnson B. 2012. The Influence of Spray Water Quality on Herbicide Efficacy. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., USA. Retrieved 04 June 2014 from https://ag.purdue.edu/btny/weedscience/documents/Water_Quality.pdf.
7- Hall G.J., Hart C.A., and Jones C.A. 1999. Twenty five years of increasing glyphosate use: The opportunities ahead. Pest Management Science, 56: 351-358.
8- Holm F.A., and Henry J.L. 2005. Water Quality and Herbicides. In: Government of Saskatchewan (Canada) Website [Online]. Available at http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=27120252-dc56-450b-8738-b9a6464aea25. (Visited 19 Janury 2014).
9- Jordan T., Johnson B., and Nic G. 2011. Adjuvants Used With Herbicides: Factors to Consider. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., USA. Retrieved 12 January 2014 from https://ag.purdue.edu/btny/weedscience/documents/adjuvants%20-%2011.pdf
10- Kroschel J. (ed.). 2001. A Technical Manual for Parasitic Weed Research and Extension. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. 278pp.
11- Monsanto. 2011. Importance of AMS with Rundup brand agricultural herbicides. In: Monsanto Weed Mangement Solution, Publication Code: 05312011SMK. Retrieved 14 June 2013 from http://www.merschmanseeds.com/pdfs/resources/agronomy/importance-of-ams-with-roundup-brand-agricultural-herbicides.pdf
12- Nalewaja J.D., Matysiak R., and Szelenzniak E. 1994. Sethoxydim response to spray carrier chemical properties and environment. Weed Technology, 8:591-597.
13- Nalewaja J.D., Woznica Z., Szeleznak E.F., and Ramsdale B. 2007. Sequence of tank-mixing water conditioning adjuvants and herbicides. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Adjuvants for Agrochemicals (ISAA2007), 6-9 August 2007, Columbus, Ohio, USA. 8 pp.
14- Penner D., Michael J., and Brown W.G. 2005. A novel water conditioning adjuvant for use with formulated and nonformulated glyphosate. Journal of ASTM International, 2(4): 128-134.
15- Peterson D.E. 1988. Spray•Adjuvants with Herbicides. NDSU Extension Service A960. North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, USA. 4pp.
16- Petroff R. 2003. Water Quality and Pesticide Performance. Montana State University, USA. 4pp.
17- Pinto de Carvalho S.J., Ribeiro Dias A.C., Damin V., Nicolai M., and Christoffoleti P.J. 2008. Glyphosate applied with different concentrations of urea or ammonium sulfate for weed desiccation (In Portuges, Abstaract in English). Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 43(11):1501-1508.
18- Roskamp J.M. 2012. The Influence of Water pH, Water Hardness, and Co-applied Herbicides and Fertilizers on the Efficacy of Selected Herbicides. MSc Dissertation. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., USA. 109 pp.
19- Shilling D.G., Haller W.T., Willard T.R., and Mosser M.A. 1990. Influence of surfactants and additives on phytotoxicity of glyphosate to torpedograss. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 28: 23-27.
20- Soltani A. 2010. Reconsideration in Statistical Methods Application in Agricultural Investigations. Jihad Daneshgahi Mashhad Press, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
21- Tao B., Zhou J., Messersmith C.G., and Nalewaja J.D. 2006. Efficacy of glyphosate plus bentazon or quizalofop on glyphosate-resistant Canola or Corn. Weed Technology, 21:97-101.
22- Tharp C. 2013. Pesticide Performance and Water Quality. MSU Extension MT201305AG New 12/13, USA. 4pp. Retrieved 04 June 2014 from http://www.pesticides.montana.edu/Reference/pesticidesandwaterquality.pdf
23- Williamson K. 2003. Water Quality for Mixing Herbicides. Agdex 641-14, Alberta Government, USA. 3pp.
24- Woznica Z., Nalewaja J.D., Calvin G., and Milkowski P. 2003. Quinclorac efficacy as affected by adjuvants and spray carrier water. Weed Technology, 17: 582-588.
25- Yeganeh M. (ed.) 2011. Guide to Iranian legal agricultural pesticides (Supplements). Iranian Plant Protection Organization, Tehran. 101 pp. (in Persian with English summary).
26- Yelverton F., Lassiter B.R., Wilkerson G.G., Warren L., Gannon T., Reynolds J.J., and Buol G.S. 2008. White Clover (Trifolium repens L.). North Carolina State University, USA. Retrieved 12 December 2013 from www.turffiles.ncsu.edu.
27- Zollinger R.K., Nalewaja J.D., Peterson D.E., and Young B.G. 2010. Effect of hard water and ammonium sulfate on weak acid herbicide activity. Journal of ASTM International, 7 (6) 10 pp. Abstract available at http://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/JOURNALS/JAI/PAGES/JAI102869.htm. (Visited 12 January 2014).