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حمید صالحیان

چکیده

مطالعه نحوه پراکنش علف­های هرز براي ارزیابی راهبردهاي زراعی در گذشته  و طراحی رهیافت­های مدیریتی آینده علف­هاي هرز مفید می‌باشد. بدین سبب این آزمایش به منظور بررسی تنوع گونه­ای، کارکردی و ساختار جوامع علف­های هرز مزارع سویا در دو منطقه دشت و کوهستانی شهرستان‌های نکا و گلوگاه، واقع در شرق استان مازندران در سطح 2820 هکتار و در مرحله پیدایش گره رویشی چهارم در سال 1397 انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری به روش سیستماتیک با استفاده از کادرهای 5/0×5/0 متر انجام و تراکم و درصد فراوانی توزیع علف­های هرز به تفکیک جنس و گونه اندازه­گیری شد. در این بررسی 47 گونه علف­هرز از 24 خانواده گیاهی شناسایی گردید. خانواده­های کاسنی (Asteraceae) و گندمیان (Poaceae) بیشترین غنای گونه­ای را به خود اختصاص دادند. علف­های هرز یکساله با 30 و چند ساله با 16 گونه به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تعداد را داشتند. در مزارع کوهستانی به علت عدم مصرف علف­کش، تراکم علف­های هرز برگ پهن بیشتر بود. در این ناحیه نسبت فراوانی گونه­هایC3  به C4 در مقایسه با دشت به دلیل کمتر بودن میانگین دما چیرگی داشت. شاخص شانون در منطقه کوهستان (13/1Hm=) بزرگتر از ناحیه دشت (04/1Hp=) برآورد گردید. بیشتر بودن تنوع گونه­ای در منطقه کوهستانی را به پایداری بیشتر این ناحیه می­توان نسبت داد. جمعیت کمتر علف­های هرز نیز در مزارع دشت نشان از نقش مهم عملیات خاک ورزی است. به طور کلی تفاوت مدیریت­های اعمال شده در دو ناحیه مورد بررسی در بلند مدت، به عنوان فیلترهای زراعی بر جمعیت و ترکیب گونه­ای علف­های هرز مؤثر بوده است.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

تنوع گونه ای, فلور, فیلتر های زراعی

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ارجاع به مقاله
صالحیانح. (2019). مقایسه تحلیلی فلور علف¬های هرز مزارع سویا ( Glycine max L.) در دو منطقه کوهستانی و دشت شرق مازندران. مطالعات حفاظت گیاهان, 33(3), 331-343. https://doi.org/10.22067/jpp.v33i3.79154
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی